LSU MUS 1751 - Ch. 19: Into to Romanticism

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Ch. 19: Into to RomanticismTuesday, April 08, 20145:34 PMRomantic inspiration and creativity-Based on emotionalism, self-expression; communication with passion-Revered the wonders of nature-Love - single most important sentiment of the Romantic aesthetic-Fascination with supernatural and macabre-Wide range of expression - musical expression comes into being -Composers are no longer servants-Music is now Art not just entertainment-Rebellion against classical ideas-Evolution beyond classical music Style of Romantic Music-Romantic melodyoBroad sweeping themesoLyrical and expressive, building to a grandiose climaxoLonger phrases, irregular in shapeoRythmically flexible-Colorful harmonyoContributes to emotional intensityoUse of chromatic harmony, temporary dissonanceoRich, lush soundsoUnexpected harmonic shifts-Romantic tempooRubato -Italian for "robbed" time-Exaggerates the rhythic flow-Gives performers more artistic freedom-Heard especially in the music of Frederic Chopin-Romantic FormsoMonumental-Romantic composers expanded those used in the classical era-Length of individual movements increased dramaticallyoMiniature-Composers tried to capture the essence of a single mood, sentiment, or emotion -The conductoroLarger more complex music needed a "traffic cop"oConductors started using a baton due to size of orchestraoInterpreter of the music-The virtuosoo19th century was the age of the solo virtuoso oMusicians tried to be the very best, like no one ever wasoPerforming tricks and gimmicks while playingoFranz Liszt (1811-1886)oNiccolo Paganini (1782-1840)-Coda (italian for "tail", it is a final and concluding section of a musical composition)oIncreased attention to literature in Romantic Era inspired new musical genres-The art song (Lied)-The program symphony-The tone poemoMore tech = bigger and better instruments-Ex pianooPolitical events influenced musical style -Nationalism Ch. 20: The Art SongTuesday, April 08, 20145:48 PM-Great poets oWordswortho ShelleyoGoetheo Keats-Strong bond between music and poetry-Art song (Lied)oSong for solo voice and piano accompaniment with high artistic aspirations oCultivated by the germans oArt song Forms-Strophic (AAA)Same music different lyrics-Modified strophicEach stanza was slightly different Clara Wieck Schumann-Great piano virtuosos 19th century-International star when married Robert-"Liebst du um Schonheit" (1841)-"If you love for beauty"-Ternary (ABA)Most common formCreates formal unityRobert Schumann Dedication-Through-composedEverything is new and differentNo repition -Franz Schubert (1797-1828)oBorn in Vienna, ItalyoComposed over 600 LiederoBohemian lifeoSchubertiads-Only his music played when performedoSong cycle-A collection of several songs united by a common theme or literary ideaoAlso composed symphonies, piano sonatas and operas oErlkonig (the Elf King)-Schubert's most famous Lied, composed at 17-Dramatic tale of horror-Contrast passages of narration and dialogue-FormThrough-composed-Musical characterizationPiano suggest horse gallopElf king sings seductively Terrified boy sings upper range with chromatic inflections Father sings in a lower, reassuring range -Robert Schumann (1810-1856)oBest works are mini, like short piano and LiederoStudied piano with Fridrich Wieck and fell in love with his daughteroMarried Clara Ch. 21: Romantic MusicTuesday, April 08, 20145:58 PM-Program musicoInstrumental music seeks to recreate in sound and emotions portrayed in some extra musical source -- a story, legend, play, novel, historical eventoTells a story-Absolute musicoInstrumental music free of a text or pre-existing programoOnly the musicoJohannes Brahms (1833-1897) -Program symphony oSymphony with 3, 4, or 5 movements which depict a succession of events-Dramatic overture-Tone poemoA 1 movement work for orchestra that gives musical expression to the emotionsor events asssociated with a story, play, political event, or personal experience -Tchaikovsky: Romeo and Juliet -Hector Berlioz (1803-1869)oBorn in Grenoble, FranceoComposer and music criticoOne of the most original figures in musicoSkilled in orchestration-Added new instruments to the orchestra-Compositions required an enormous number of musiciansoInfluenced by literature, especially ShakespeareoLife epitomized the artist as Romantic hero oSymphonie Fantastique (1830)-The 1st complete program symphony -Berlioz wrote the program based on his love affair with Harriet Smithson-5 movements-Unifying themes  idee fixe (fixed idea)Represents "the beloved"Appears in each movementAltered to reflect his changing mood about "the beloved" -Movement V. "Dreams of a Witches' Sabbath"Berlioz creates his personal vision of HellParody of the idee fixeDies Irae chant-Burial hymn of medieval church Parodied as a satiric dance -Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893)oTone poem-1 movement work for orchestra that captures the emotions and events of a story through musicoMost prolific writer of the late 19th century program musicoProfessor at Moscow conservatoryoSupported by patroness Madame Nadezdhe von Meck and Tsar Alexander IIIoCompositions include every genre of Romantic Era musicoPrimarily known today for his program music and ballets -Music and nationalismoPolitical upheavaloNational anthems, native dances, protest songs, victory symphonies oRussian nationalism-Modest Mvsorgsky-Russia was one of 1st to develop own national style of art music oPictures at an Exhibition-Originally for piano,; orchestra let by Maurice Ravel in 1922-Each movement depicts a different drawing or painting by Victor Hartman-PromenadeOpens the work and serves as transition between movements Solo contrasts with full brass then full orchestraIrregular meter and use of pentatonic scale oPolish Ox- Cart-Creates sense of time and movement-2 not ostinato -Crescendo and decrescendo as the cart approaches then disappears-Begins and ends with lowest soundsoThe great gate of Kiev-Impression of a parade passing through a great arch-Rondo form (ABADCA)-Use of different musical styles in each section Ch. 22: Romantic Music: Piano musicTuesday, April 08, 20146:18 PM-Improved by technology of the industrial revolutionoMore keys (88) and pedals were addedoCross-stringing for richer soundoMore expressiveoHome making musicGreat virtuoso pianists/composers of the 19th century-Robert Schumann oCarnival (1834)-Collection of 21 short

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LSU MUS 1751 - Ch. 19: Into to Romanticism

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