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Psych 100.1H Focus QuestionsChapter 14 (pp. 511-524) – Class 2911/1/20131. Define social pressure, social facilitation, and social interference. Describe Zajonc’s theory, providing evidence in your response. What is the working memory explanation for social interference?Social pressure—entire sets of psychological forces that are exerted on us by others’ judgmentsSocial facilitation—enhancing effect of an audience on task performanceSocial interference—decline in performance when observers are presenta. Zanjonc’s theoryi. Presence of others facilitates performance of dominant actions and interferes with performance of non-dominant actions (Zajonc 1965) Develop arguments opposing views of classical philosophersii. Audience increases person’s level of arousal. Heightened drive increases effort, which facilitates dominant tasks, interferes with controlled conscious thought. iii. Also depends on skill (Michaels 1982) pool players that were experienced performed better, but novice performed worse in front of people. b. Working memory explanation for social interferencei. Choking on academic tests1. Zeidner 1998a. Distracting and disturbing thoughts flood minds and interfere with performance on important testsb. Occurs specifically with test items that make the highest demands on working memory2. Beilock 2004a. Math test two groups: low/high pressure. High did worse on unpracticed which needed more from working memory2. What is stereotype threat and how can it affect test performance? Provide evidence in your response. How is this a type of “choking”?Stereotype threat—threat that test takers experience when they are reminded of the stereotypicalbelief that the group which they belong is not expected to do well on the testa. Affect Test Performancei. African American college students but not white performed worse on testsif they were refereed to t as “intelligence tests” than other labels. Even greater if reminded of race right before. ii. Other stigmatized groups: women perform worse on problem solving tests described as “math tests”. Especially if attention is drawn to that women have less aptitude for math than do men. b. Type of chokingi. Produce its effects by increasing anxiety and mental distraction. Undermine confidence; increasing motivation to do well, results in increased anxiety. ii.3. What is impression management and how is this demonstrated in actors and politicians? How does impression management differ for acquaintances and close friends? Impression management—entire set of ways by which people consciously and unconsciously modify their behavior to influence other’s impressions of thema. Humans as Actors and Politiciansi. Shakespeare “all the world’s a stage, men merely players”1. Presentation of Self in Everyday Life says that we are actors playing at different times on different stages to different audiences,always trying to convince our current audience we are whom we are playing. ii. Intuitive politicians1. Perform to achieve real life ends because we need the approval andcooperation of other people. Perform and compromise in various waysb. Differ for acquaintances and close friendsi. More concerned with impression management with new acquaintances than close friends. 1. First impressions can have long lasting effects2. Less need to manage impressions with close friends because they already know us well, slip will not so seriously harm our reputationwith friends as it will with strangers and friends may see through act no matter how clever the performance. 3. Dating partners much more concerned with making good impressions on each other than are married partners. a. Dating better relationship when “good” impressionb. Married better relationship when “true” impressionii.4. Distinguish between normative and informational influence. Describe Asch’s conformity experiments and what they tell us about these influences. Normative influence—social influence that works through the persons desire to be a part of a group or be approved by othersInformational influence—social influence that works through providing clues about the objective nature about an event of situationa. Asch’s conformity experimentsi. People conform to others’ judgments when objective evidence is ambiguous. Expected when evidence clear cut that they would not conform. ii. Participant with confederates: 75% swayed by confederates on at least 1 of12 critical trials, a little over a third of the time they will conform iii. Mostly normative influence, didn’t want to look different, but also using informational, using others as judgments to base from. iv. The liberating and thought-provoking influence of a non conformist1. Single confederate gave different answer than others. Amount of conformity dropped to one fourth of previous.5. Provide an overview of how norms can help or hurt others, including a discussion of the “broken windows” theory of crime, implicit norms in public service messages, and the passive bystander effect in your response.a. Norms can help or hurt othersi. Broken windows1. Broken windows, litter, graffiti, signals disrespect for law, order, and rights of residents. 2. Cleaning up subways, streets, vacant buildings, and cracking downon petty crime, created social environment where breaking law wasabnormal. 3. People motivated to behave as they see normal4. Netherlands experiment of two conditions, 5 Euro note out of mail box and official sign telling not to walk. ii. Implicit norms1. Showing that other people steal wood from parks increases instead of decreases. Smoking drunk driving, littering, implicitly want to fit majorityiii. Passive bystander effect1. Person is much more likely to help if only witnessa. 70% helped if alone, only 20% if with personi. More people, less feel responsible to contributeii. Alone—decide emergency yourself, with group—inaction=normative and informational influences6. Describe group polarization. What causes this phenomenon? What is groupthink and how does it relate to making good and bad decisions?a. Group Polarizationi. If group is evenly split, result is compromise. If not evenly split, majority becomes more extreme in their initial view.1. Traffic violation cases, controversial issues like strengthening the militaryb. Causesi. Informational1. pooling of arguments that occurs during group discussion2. vigorously put forth arguments in favor, disregard others3. disproportionate number


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PSU PSYCH 100H - Chapter 14

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