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Psych 100.1H Focus QuestionsChapter 1 – Class 28/28/20131. What are the two components that make up the science of psychology and how can they be defined?a. Behavior: observable actions of a person or an animalb. Mind: individual’s sensations, perceptions, memories, thoughts, dreams, motives, emotional feelings, and other subjective experiences. Unconscious knowledge andoperating rules that are built into or stored in the brain that provide the foundationfor organizing behavior and conscious experience. 2. Describe the evolution of the idea of a physical causation for behavior; how did René Descartes, Thomas Hobbes, and nineteenth-century physiologists contribute to this evolution?a. Descartes—Dualismi. Material body and immaterial soul. Thought is existent to only humans. ii. Soul acts in the pineal body between the two hemispheres of the brain.iii. Non-material entity (soul) have material effect (movement of body)b. Hobbes—Materialismi. All human behavior can be understood in terms of physical processes in the body. 1. Conscious thought, purely product of the brain’s machinery and therefore subject to natural lawc. Nineteenth Century Physiologists—Localization of functioni. All human behavior occurs through reflexes initiated through the environmentii. Pierre Flourens (1824-1965) damage to different parts of the brain produces different kinds of deficits in animal’s ability to move.iii. Broca (1861-1965) injury left hemisphere lose ability to speak but nothingelse. 3. Define empiricism, including major concepts associated with it, and compare/contrast this school of thought with nativism.a. Empiricism—Human knowledge and thought derive from sensory experience. i. Association by contiguity—experience two environmental events at the same time, two events will become bound togetherb. Nativism—Basic operating characteristics are inborni. An entity must have initial machinery built into it. 4. How was Darwin’s principle of evolution by natural selection applied to the field of psychology?a. Adapt to environmental demand, ensure survival of speciesb. Fessler (2006), Curtis et al (2004) Evolutionary Theory and Disgusti. Survival of species, not get sick, averts disease causing ii. More selective when women are in first trimester.iii. Allowed ancestors to survive long enough to produce offspring, passing same sensitivities along to us. iv. Strongest when threatened immune system5. What are the different levels of analysis used in psychology? Provide an example of how a person’s behavior or mental experience could be examined at each of these levels. a. Neural (brain as cause): hormones and drugs act on the brain to alter behaviori. Barlow (1995) Serotoninb. Genetic (genes as cause): twin studies and intelligence i. Bouchard et al (1990) longitudinal study MZT DZTc. Evolutionary (natural selection as cause): survival of speciesi. Fessler (2006) and Curtis (2004) internet studies disgustd. Learning (prior experiences with the environment as cause): learn new skillsi. Pavlov feeding dogs at the belle. Cognitive (knowledge or beliefs as cause): racial prejudice, particular beliefsi. Bartlett (1932) Schema theoryf. Social (influence of people as cause): norms and beliefs for violencei. Bandura (1961) bobo doll g. Cultural (culture develops as cause): significant cultural differencesi. Bulimia: Jaeger (2002) west more ideal, Nasser (1986) Egyptian women in London and Cairoh. Developmental (age-related changes as cause): stages of age related changei. Packer (2005) girls jealous of other best friends with


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PSU PSYCH 100H - Chapter 1

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