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HIST 0430 notes – Lecture 10: 3/26/14 – page 1issue today: immigration to (not emigration from) Japanaging population – fill labor gap with foreign laborersJapanese extremely against immigration – worried of threat to societyKitano: Japanese-Americans: Evolution of a SubcultureRonald Takaki400k Japanese immigrated to US at turn of 20th century1. Departures and Destinationsa. Where were they from?i. mostly southern/southwestern Japanii. also northiii. basically all overb. Where did they go?i. west coast, primarily CA/HIii. Canadaiii. originally Mexico, but coffee plantations failed1. later, South Americaiv. Europe mostly closed, but accepted temporary studentsc. Why emigrate?i. economic motivation – opportunities for work1. 1880s/1890s crushing for Japanese farmers2. 1882 – 28k applicants for first year travel to US3. higher wages, even as common laborersii. opportunities1. education2. fleeing legal consequencesiii. overpopulation1. even without immigration to Japan, population doubled in 60 yearsd. What was it like where they went? (America 19th century)i. immigrant discrimination/prejudiceii. Chinese immigration restrictions1. 1882: completely excluded Chinese in Chinese Exclusion Act2. Japanese viewed as failure of Chinese government/immigrants to adhere to American culturalstandardsiii. Hawaii1. Japanese government only allowed immigrants to Hawaii after 1884 (they were rude in 1868)2. Japanese nearly 50% shortlyiv. West Coast1. carved out niche as specialized farmers2. restrictions in Canada and Latin America laterv. discrimination of Japanese-AmericansHIST 0430 notes – Lecture 10: 3/26/14 – page 21. Sawada: Japanese observed as middle class because lowclass workers went back to Japan2. disliked because they were good at their jobs, couldn’t assimilate2. 1920s in Japan and America (in regards to immigration)a. Political eventsi. 1919 – shocks1. Korea revolts against Japan 19192. 4 months later – revolt in China against Japanese controlii. League of Nations rejected equality proposal – Japan was offendediii. treatiesiv. 1925 all men given vote, but political rights cut backb. Economici. WWI was good for trade, but worldwide depression afterwardsii. middle class/urbanism (Tokyo) growing1. also growing: dichotomy AKA income disparityc. Emigration/immigrationi. right to land ownership taken away, then 1924 exclusionii. net outflow of Japanese from US in 1920s1. 27k – 1/3 of all Japanese immigrants returned to Japan2. mainly laborers – no future/opportunity (males)3. smaller farms, 75% less leasing of farmsiii. there is still emigration, just not to US1. mostly Brazil2. unhappiness with US/immigration restrictions gave pretext to Japanese proponents of

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Pitt HIST 0430 - Lecture notes

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