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Three systems model of memoryFirst: sensory memorySecond: working (short-term) memoryLimits of working memoryAiding working memoryLong term memoryPSY 0010 notes – Memory – page 1What is memory?- information processing system building on core metaphor of cognitive psych revolution – brains like hardware, minds like software- memory allows to store and retrieve info- not a system for recording informationo d/n record and then look back for accurate picture of previous experiences- memory is parsimoniouso we store only as much as we need to accomplish our daily purposeso therefore we don’t store every detail of the penny because we only need to know copper/Lincoln for everyday memory functionality regarding pennies- memory illusiono false but convincing memoryo in most cases, never find out that our memory is illusionary- memory is reconstructiveo take in info (not everything), then change what we take in when we retrieve it, further changes what took place makes memory an interpretive systemo can result in memory errorso like archaeology – use what we have and fill in gapsThree systems model of memory- Atkinson & Shiffrin model- each of 3 has different spano varies in amount of information they can hold- different durationso varies in how long system can hold infoFirst: sensory memory- large span enters through the senses- perceptual info stored very briefly unless passed to short-term memoryo most will never be remembered again- each sense has its own form of sensory memoryo iconic (visual) sensory memory lasts less than 1 second except in cases of eidetic imagery (photographic memory)o echoic (auditory) lasts several secondsSecond: working (short-term) memory- mental workspace – what we are consciously aware of, able to think about and work with in our minds- info only stays in working memory for brief periodo less than 30 seconds o still longer than sensory memory- limited capacity (span)PSY 0010 notes – Memory – page 2o 7 +/- 2 pieces of info (Miller) categorizes working memory for majority of peopleo can be fewer than 5 or more than 9, but for most 7 +/- 2 is the limitLimits of working memory- selective attentiono focus awareness on some aspects of environment, ignore otherso filter out much of incoming info, focus only on info that matters using limited cognitive resources for best purposeo inattentional blindness focusing on one aspect of the environment makes us apt to miss changes (even large ones) in background aspects of environmento cocktail party effect filtering out then refocusing on what was background info when it is personally relevant hearing own name in a background conversation you weren’t listening to we think we weren’t listening, but a part of the mind was monitoring background conversationo perceptual load model ability to filter out background info varies with how much of our attentional capacity is being demanded by object we’re focusing on during exam, little noises and small distractions get attention more demand we put on cognitive apparatuses, the less they can do in other respects i.e. filtering out background noise- shifting attention (multi-tasking)o rapid switching of attention from one task to another not paying attention to multiple things at onceo compensation for limited abilityo reduces performance on the primary task attempted compromises learning by interfering with encoding info (one of primary tasks of memory) more info gets dropped – not stored/entered into memoryAiding working memory- chunkingo organizing info into meaningful groupings to extend span of STM- rehearsalo repeating info to extend durationo maintenance rehearsal repeating stimuli in the original formo elaborative rehearsal linking stimuli in a meaningful way connecting new info to existing info superior in moving info into LTMPSY 0010 notes – Memory – page 3Long term memory- permanent store of info - very large capacity (span)o no real limit - info may endure for decadeso “permastore” - organized according to meaningo “sweet” connected in a network of meanings with all the words in the listTypes of long term memoryExplicit (declarative) memory- accessible to conscious awareness, recalled intentionallyo semantic memory knowledge of general info, meaning of words, conceptso episodic memory knowledge of events in our lives (“episodes”) tends to be stored orallyLong term memory’s 4 tasks1) Encoding- info needs to be encoded in a way that memory can use- selection – which info gets encodedo based on relevance etc.- identification – know what it is that we’re seeing/feeling- labeling – needs category- elaboration- levels of processingo shallow – structural – how info appearso phonemic – storing soundso deep – semantic – level of meaningo higher level: higher probability of recall2) Consolidation- some see as separate task, some group with storage process- process by which encoded info consolidated so it can be stored over long term- aided by sleep3) Storage- retention of encoded material over time- hierarchies, schemas, associative networks – all how LTM stores info to be used at a later time4) Retrieval- location, recovery, reconstruction of stored info - when bring LTM into STM, recreate event from whatever was stored- depends on how memories were encoded (1) and how they are cued- recognitionPSY 0010 notes – Memory – page 4o identifying previously remembered info from array of options (i.e. MC)o options serve as retrieval cues- recallo reproducing previously presented infoo requires cues other than info itself- principle of encoding specificityo most likely to be able to retrieve/recall info when cues in environment or selves that match original info and serve as cues to recallo context-dependent learning better able to retrieve info when in situation/context in which info was originally learned o state-dependent learning we remember more easily when in same internal state as we were when we learned it i.e. mood-congruent memory- happy mood likely to trigger happy memories- depression perpetuates itself through biased retrieval of depressing memoriesBiology of memory- most of what we know about memory comes from Patient H.M.o 1953 surgery to contain epileptic seizureso lost hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, some anterolateral temporal cortex at the time, didn’t know what any of these structures dido could not form


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Pitt PSY 0010 - Lecture notes

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