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• Origins• establishment of 3 organizations, known as the European Communities• European Coal and Steel Community (1951)• European Economic Community (1957)• European Atomic Energy Community (1957)• Schuman Plan (May 1950)• Robert Schuman, Foreign minister of France• Establishing an EU• how does change occur in the EU?• Treaty Revision• transfer sovereignty from member states to supranational institutions• deeper integration• Treaty of Rome (1957)• established European Economic community• Treaty of Maastricht (1992)• changed name to EU• paved way to the Euro• Common Foreign and Security Policies• increased power of supranational institutions • Enlargement• addition of new member-states• originally six members• France• Germany• Italy• Belgium• Netherlands• Luxembourg• today: 28• first enlargement, 1972:• UK• Ireland• Denmark• second, 1981:• Mediterranean countries• Greece• Spain• Portugal• third, 1995:• neutral countries:• Austria• Finland• Sweden• fourth, 2004:• former communist • Approaches to integration• two approaches to European cooperation• inter-governmentalism• coordination among member-state governments to solve common problems• member-state sovereignty remains intact• supranationalism• to solve common problems, some sovereignty is delegated to supranational institutions• can compel member-states to follow common policies• currently, EU is a combination of inter-governmentalism and supranationalism • some policies decided jointly by member-states through intergovernmental cooperation• other policies are decided by supranational institutions, away from national control • goals• political• peace through economic interdependence among member-states• common foreign policy• economic• free trade and economic prosperity• common market• social• similar standards and performance in education, social policy, etc.• accomplishments• unification of entire continent• single market• economic and monetary union (the Euro)• common foreign and defense policy• rehabilitation of most post-communist countries• strengthening of "common" policies• vs. intergovernmental policies • challenges• democratic legitimacy of EU• adoption of new members after 2004 enlargement• future enlargement• Turkey■• implementing new provisions in Treaty of Libson• Moravcsik - Choice for Europe• what caused advance of European integration?• National governments seeking to advance the interests of constituents• opposes view that the EU institutions themselves have independent

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UIUC PS 348 - Lecture notes

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