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• Numerous definitions coexist• cause of heated debatesClassifications• Geography• Scandinavia to Mediterranean• Atlantic to Urals• but can a country really be European and Asian at the same time? • ex: Russia• Idea• exists in our common imagination• not only a physical space• community of values• common values among all Europeans• Democracy, Rule of Law, Secularism, Market Economy, Social Solidarity• Legacy of the Enlightenment and the Renaissance• Model• for political, economic, and social organization• how societies and economies *should* be organized• European Union affects our understanding of "Europe"• Europe as an economic community, with a single market and a single currency• Europe as a political community, with common government institutions and policiesUnity in diversity• Europe has several common meanings, but Europe is also very diverse• history of conflict• numerous nation-states• different government traditions• different linguistic, ethnic, and cultural groups• Germanic, Slavic, Latin, Celtic• Different religious traditions• Catholic, Orthodox, Protestant, Jewish, Muslim*******Euroskepticism• Rejects the idea of a unified Europe• doubt the concept of a single culture• Criticism of the European Union• parties on right of spectrum (extremist) think EU should be abolished• European parliament has a group of members of parliament that are anti-EUWhat is Western Europe?• has followed a distinctive path of political and economic development• Birthplace of modern nation-state and associated concepts:• sovereignty• exclusive political authority• nationalism• legitimacy of new state• states fulfill destinies of states• nationalization politics• transfer of political authority to the national government • different countries, different paths to democracy• enlightenment• ideas of a limited government, social contract, concept of rights, emphasis on reason and rejection of religious rule• birthplace of capitalism and market economy• industrial revolution• private ownership• market competition• birthplace of capitalist critiques• Marx, Communism• protectionism, state intervention• social democracy• european social model, welfare stateEastern vs. Western Europe• Eastern• Different political and economic path• After Middle Ages, rule of empires• Habsburg, Russian, Ottoman, Prussian• Belated development of sovereign nations• Belated industrialization, lack of economic prosperity • Cold War reinforced divisions between East and West• Europe divided between Communist and non-Communist• 1945-1989• East European countries "in transition"• After Cold War, three challenges:• democratization• build market economies• build new statesConclusion• Geographically, Europe represents world region from atlantic to Urals• As an idea, Europe represents values, historical, and political development of Western Europe• Western Europe dominates how we understand what "europe" and "european"

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UIUC PS 348 - Lecture notes

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