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Discuss the components and factors of credibilityComponents-Competence: Expertise-Is the speaker in a position to know what is correct?-Character: Trustworthiness-Is the speaker inclined to tell me the truth?Factors-education, occupation, expertise-disfluencies in delivery-speaking rate-citation of evidence and sources-liking of the speaker-humorDefine “listenable speech”Rule 1: You speak for you audience, not for yourselfRule 2: Audiences appreciates frills, but notice missing fundamentals more.Rule 3: Information and persuasion can never ne wholly separated.Explain how demographics and psychographics work togetherDemographics: your listeners’ characteristics based on their descriptions andbackgrounds-include such factors as age, gender, religion, ethnicity, education,occupation, and race.Psychographics: the audience’s attitudes and beliefsDemographics and psychographics go hand and hand because the listeners’ attitudesand beliefs are based on their backgrounds and descriptions.Define and differentiate among the components of the statement ofcentral idea-Your promise to your audience:“I promise I will meet the following obligations”Components:-Goal of the speech (“to inform” or “to persuade”)-Topic of the speech (your subject)-Method of speech development (main points, in order)The goal of the speech is the overall reason you’re giving the speech.The topic of the speech is what you’re speaking about.-Method of speech is how you transition and the main pointsClarify how principles of unethical communication work in the contextof public speakingExplain how supporting material relates to logos and ethosSupporting material emphasizes credibility or logos when using statistics and testimonies while also emphasizing on emotions or ethos when using examples or stories.Identify types of supporting evidence used in speechesStatistics: a collection of numeric information arranged as representations, trends or theories­Use: to quantify ideas, or to show the magnitude or scope of an issueExamples: stories and anecdotesUse: Explanation, clarification, personalization, or making things concreteTestimony: statements about a phenomenon from people who have experience with itUse: clarification of ideas, back up contentions, reinforce conceptsDiscuss principles of evaluating Internet sourcesAuthor: Who wrote the article?-Qualifications and expertise-bias-agendaSponsor: Who paid for the article, Web site?-organization’s affiliations -organizaiton’s agenda-organization’s other financial connectionsRecency: When was the article written?-reflects most current knowledge?-good for historical comparison?Correctly write how to orally cite a source using the four elements of a citationTextAuthorAuthor’s qualificationsDate of publicationExample:In an article in the November, 2004 issue of the South African Journal of Psychology, Dr. Derek Hook, a professor of social psychology at the London School of Economics, says, and I quote, “Racism comprises a set of representations of the other in terms of negatively evaluative contents.”Explain the function of each type of signposting and provide remedies for examples of poor signpostsInternal previews-occur at the beginning of each main point-previews the upcoming“in order to understand the problems with purchasing meat from grocery, restaurant and fast food chains, we need to examine the economic, environmental and ethical damage caused by buying meat from these chains.”Internal summary-occur at the end of each main point-summarizes the previous subpoints-begin the two-part transition to the next main point“we just examined the economic, environmental and ethical damage caused by buying meat from grocery, restaurant and fast food chains.”Two-part transitions-sit between major component of speech-link components and explain the logical relationship/flow from one to the next“Now that we have learned about the economic, environmental and ethical damage caused by buying meat from these chains, we must learn about a solution that each of us can implement-beginning today.”Explain the function of parallelism and provide remedies for examples of poor parallelismParallelism: using the same words each time you talk about a main pointDistinguish among organizational patternsSpatial: speaker sets a point of reference and follows a geographic patternChronological: speaker organizes speech according to time sequence.Topical: speaker explains an idea in terms of its component parts.Causal, cause-effect: speaker shows how two or more events are connected in such a way that if one occurs, the other will necessarily follow.Compare-contrast: speaker arranges information according to how two or more things are similar to or different from one anotherProblem-solution: speaker attempts to identify what is wrong and to determine how to cure it or make a recommendation for its cure.Explain how choice of organizational pattern affects how informationis interpreted by the audienceIt provides focus and direction as the writer composes the document, which helps to ensure that the stated purpose is fulfilled. For the reader, clear organization greatly enhances the ease with which one can understand and remember the information being presented. People seek out patterns to help make sense of information. When the reader is not able to find a pattern that makes sense, chaos and confusion abound.Identify classifications of informative speechesObjects-Describe a particular thing in detail-person, place, animal, structure, machine, anything that can be touched or seenProcesses-Instruct an audience about how something works, is made, or is done so that the audience may apply the skills learned-purpose may be to gain understanding of the process or learn how to do somethingEvents-Inform the audience about something that has happened, is currently happening, or is about to happenConcepts-Examine theories, beliefs, ideas, philosophies, or schools of thought-the speaker must use precise language, define terms, give historical background, avoid slang, and jargon and use visual aids for support.Identify and define the three major componentsClaim: an assertion or conclusion you ask the audience to accept -“what do you want me to believe?”-smooshzilla is the most wonderful cat in the worldGrounds: data (statistics, examples, and reasoning) on which the claim is based-“what have you got to go on?”-Serpell(1991) and Demecki and Anderson (1996)


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UMD COMM 107 - Chapter 11

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