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Type of emotion vs. intensity and duration of emotions(a) Poor estimates of subjective intensity/duration(i) i.e. breakups(b) People don’t take into account their resilience and adaptation and benefitsPSYC 221 – Fall 2013Study Guide for Exam 2A word of advice: read the textbook chapters thoroughly (but you can skip over any sectionthat I tell you to skip; see below). The chapters that will be covered are 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10.**Note: The most recent unit of material on religion/morality/political psychology will NOT be included on this exam. It will be covered on the final exam instead. I) Attitudes & Attitude Change- Functions of attitudes (intra and interpersonal)Attitudes function to sort things into “good” and “bad.” They help us adjust to new situations, seeking out things in our environment that reward us and avoiding things that punish us; create bonds between people, tell us how to act, what to choose, improve physical and mental health, decision making- Attitude formation(a) Learning theory – rewards/punishments, observations/modelingClassical and operant conditioning: classical—a type of learning in which through repeated pairing a neutral stimulus comes to evoke a conditioned response; operant—a type of learning in which people are more likely to repeat behaviors that have been rewarded and less likely to repeat behaviors that have been punished(b) Social comparison – placebo effects, observationPeople learn how to behave by observing and imitating others(c) Social networks, relationships, and attitude similarity(d) Mere exposureRepeated/prolonged exposure to a stimulus; person, idea, neutral/inanimate object; assumes initial neutral attitude; the tendency for people to come to like things simply because they see or encounter them repeatedly; “familiarity breeds liking”; only works for positive or noattitude(e) Implicit vs. explicit attitudes (Implicit Association Test)IAT—purports to measure attitudes and beliefs that people are either unwilling or unable to report; automatic attitudes are more difficult to measure than deliberate attitudes, most often involves measuring reaction time to stimuli; dual attitudes—automatic/implicit and deliberate/explicit: different evaluations of the same attitude- Attitude-behavior link – it’s weak, why?(a) Specificity of the behavior and relevance to the attitudeGap between general attitudes and specific behaviors is too big (help people but wouldn’t give blood because scared of needles)(b) Stability vs. change over timeAttitudes and behaviors can be inconsistent; aggregating behavior—combining behaviors on different occasions(c) Reasoned Action ModelAttitudethinkingbehavior; planning and accessibility(d) Events, subjective normsSubjective/social norm + individual attitude(e) Attitude strength Extremity of emotion; degree of certainty vs. ambivalence; stronger attitudes are more consistent and higher linked with behavior; increasinginformation and evidence; direct personal experience and self-interest- Attitude change (a) Learning theory (b) Balance theory (noted in your textbook; Heider’s P-O-X theory)The idea that relationships among one person (P), the other person (O), and an attitude object (X) may be either balanced or unbalanced; balanced states are preferred over and people who are unbalanced are motivated to change them(c) Equilibrium theory and Cognitive Dissonance – what IS cognitive dissonance? Inconsistency between attitude and behavior (or a second attitude); conflicting thoughts cause psychological discomfort; how people rationalize their behavior so as to bring their attitudes in line withtheir actions; balanced = consistent1. Ingredients necessary for cognitive dissonance to occurFeeling free of choice in decision, minimal external justification, can’t go back and change behavior/reverse decision, being in public is another moderating factor- I will NOT test you on irrational beliefs, religious beliefs, etc. in chapter 7II) Social Influence - Compliance & Persuasion(a) Learning theory – pair with positive/negative affective stimulusNormative influence—going along with the crowd in order to be liked and accepted (Asch line test), being accepted is more important than being correct; Informational influence—going along with the crowd because you think the crowd has more knows more than you do; autokinetic affect/experiment, group norms,(b) Norm of reciprocity and related techniques- Foot-in-door- Low-ball: requester gets a person to comply with a seemingly low-cost request only to later reveal hidden additional costs- Bait-and-switch: draws people in with one thing then switches to something less attractive- Labeling: assigning a label to an individual then requests a favor that is consistent with the label- Door-in-the-face- That’s-not-all(c) ScarcityWhat is rare is good; individualistic cultures value freedomas objects become scarce we lose our ability to obtain them(d) Commitment (cognitive dissonance)1. Implications for initiation rites & hazing(e) Source of message credible vs. not credible1. Similarity, familiarity, likability, cooperativeness, no conflict of interest, authority figure, celebrity, expertiseExpertise and trustworthiness, likability and attractiveness(f) Audience1. Personality, motivation, distraction/fatigue, intelligence, agePrivate acceptance—genuine inner belief that others are right vs. public compliance—outwardly going along with the group but maintaining a private inner belief; intelligence: receptivity and yielding, need for cognition, age and impressionable years, cultural differences, overheard messages are more enticing(g) Elaboration of Likelihood Model (ELM; noted in textbook)Theory that posits two routes to persuasion, via either conscious or automatic processing; central route vs. peripheral route(h) Resisting attitude change, inoculation, counter arguments, etc.Making a public commitment reduces reciprocation, being tricked justifies an out, accept initial favors but reject tricks, distraction- Obedience (this appears in ch. 9)(a) Types of social influence/power1. Sanctioned authority & force2. Threat to reputation, stigma3. Expertise, charisma(b) Stanley Milgram experimentWould people be willing to inflict pain on another person if an authority figure told them to do so (62.5% went all the way up to the highest shock)- Conformity (this appears in ch. 9)(a) Normative & informative social influence (Asch line study)Exhibit


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UMD PSYC 221 - Study Guide for Exam 2

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Exam 1

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CHAPTER 1

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