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PSYC221 – FINAL STUDY GUIDE1. Religion and Mortality a. Functions of religion i. Terror Management Theory 1. Mortality salience  anxiety/distress a. Knowing that we are going to die is a scary thought b. When thoughts of death are prominent in a person’s mind anxiety and distress increase2. Promotes religiosity, political 3. Promote people to be scared of death these variablesincrease 4. Increased belief in supernatural agents, afterlife, mind/body distinctions 5. Belief in God vs. Spirituality a. Believing these things help people realize that their spirit will always live on forever even though their body will not be there ii. Social identity1. 70% of Americans say religious identity is greater than social identity (ethnic group. Geography, etc.)2. Continuity, certainty3. Share beliefs and social connectivity4. Ease to generate values  influence judgments/decisions 5. Mind perception and assessment a. Fast judgments of others “Halo Effect”i. Judge person based on religious beliefs b. Thoughts and attitudes  behaviori. Lust (fantasy) and adultery (action)iii. Group Level Norms1. “Binding” morals and ethicsa. Promote in-group cooperation/altruismb. Eliminate free-rider problemsc. Keep authority/structure in tactd. Assist in mobilizing around common causes iv. Formation and facilitation of large groups and common goals/causesv. Religion and coping 1. Universality of suffering and harma. Even innocent peoplei. “His sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust”ii. Buddhism – 1st Noble Truth1. All people inevitably suffer b. Divine purpose isn’t random c. “Belief in a just world”2. Cope with bad things happening to good people by understanding that even good people will suffer 3. When things go wrong… a. In group social support b. God as a parental figure i. “…personal relationship with God”1. Proximity-seeking under stress/threat2. When under stress you run to parent, significant other, or a friend  seek safety and support from God just as you would to someone you have a relationship with b. Effects of religious beliefs and or/belief in Godi. Reduced cheating, dishonestyii. Coping and/or social support from others in religious group or Godiii. Moralizing normative behavior1. Association between social norms and suicide ratesiv. Competition/conflict between groups and in-group favoritism c. Similarities between religious people and secular/atheistsi. Moralizing normative behavior1. Sex, eating, work2. Moral weight assigned to these normal activitiesii. Religious vs. secular people1. More religious peoplea. Less adultery, more happinessiii. Self control/willpower1. Experimental religious primes 2. People had more willpower and self-control when primed with ideas of religioniv. Lower rates of suicide in societies with ore social norms (“tighter” societies) 1. More causes, values, meaning governing day to day behavior they have more meaning in their day to day lives and less thoughts of suicidal behavior d. Discrimination against atheists i. Atheists are most distrusted, least liked group (by far)1. Don’t think God is watching them so they can performhowever they would like ii. Distrust  belief that God watching (motivated to behave ethically)1. Leads to discrimination a. Job hiring (teachers, day care)  need to be well trustediii. Atheism 1. Unity with humankind, universe2. Transcendence of time, spacea. Especially with psychedelic drugs3. Emotion; elevation; awe4. Behavior; rituals; superstition; “holy” ground5. Cognition; karma, sacrelized ideals; “sell your soul”a. Get money for selling their soul – at the bottomof the paper they say this is just for a psychological experiment not really going to take a person’s soul – but people are still not willing to sign the paper e. Moral dumbfounding “intuitiveness”i. Can’t articulate cognitively what’s going on ii. Emotions drive moral judgments f. Morality at two levelsi. Individual 1. Care (vs. harm)2. Fairness/justice (vs. inequality)3. Had these things before religion was involved ii. Group-level mortality1. “Collective effervescence” a. Singing in Church, burning man, synchronized movements and chants 2. In-group loyalty (patriotism)3. Authority/respect (parents, police, institutions)4. Purity/sanctity (sex, food) 5. These ideas have to do with religion g. Five moral foundations i. Differences for liberals/conservatives 1. Liberals are more likely to agree with a. Justice, fairness, and equality are the more important requirements for a societyb. Judgments and decisions i. Whether or not someone was cruel ii. Whether or not someone acted unfairlyc. Rhetoric prioritizes worldliness and human rights (healthcare, income equality)2. Conservatives are more likely to agree with a. Loyalty to one’s group is more important than one’s individual concernsb. Judgments and decisionsi. Whether or not someone acted in a way that God would approve of c. Whether or not an action caused chaos or disorderd. Rhetoric prioritizes traditional American values (sex, prayer, flags)2. Political psychologya. Change (or lack thereof) across the lifespan in ideology/attitudesi. Ideology, affiliation, attitudes 1. Modeling/learning2. Genetic correlations a. Personality traits carry a genetic roleb. Model parent’s behavior ii. Personal (life) narratives 1. Liberals lessons involving empathy and harm 2. Tend to recall events from their childhood teaching authority iii. Parenting styles/attitudes 1. Authoritarian a. Tend to grow up and be more conservativeb. Everything is rigid and strict2. Permissive/egalitarian a. Tend to grow up and be more liberalb. Things are more collaborative c. More room for communication between parentsand children 3. Remain when controlling for:a. General cognitive abilityb. SESi. Socio economic statusc. Gender and ethnicityd. Maternal sensitivity iv. Change 1. Across lifespan, very little change (age 30)a. By this age our beliefs are pretty much set2. Major political events (example – 9/11)a. Can change people’s world views3. Moving to a different geographic location a. Attitudes will change depending on where a person lives 4. College a. Change is not permanent 5. Change in political trust a. Younger Americans tend to be more skeptical, distrusting of authority – rebellious i. A little less responsible and less trustingii. As people get older and acquire more education they become socialized into


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UMD PSYC 221 - FINAL STUDY GUIDE

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