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Exam 2 Study Guide Attitudes & Attitude Change (chapter 7) • Attitudes – global evaluations toward some object or issue (ex: you like or dislike something, you are in favor of or opposed to some position). Attitudes are for choosing o Are necessary and adaptive for humans. They help us to adjust to new situations o Everyone has attitudes about everything  schema about a topic • Attitude polarization – the finding that people’s attitudes become more extreme as they reflect on them • Functions of attitudes (intra and interpersonal) o Inner processes serve interpersonal functions o Interpersonal – people need to influence how others choose • Attitude formation o Attitudes are mainly used to sort things into “good” and “bad” categories (initial evaluation of if something is good or bad is unconscious and immediate) o Learning theory – rewards/punishments, observations/modeling  Attitudes help us to seek out things in the environment that reward us and avoid those that punish us  Classical conditioning (Pavlov’s dog experiment  positive attitude)  Operant conditioning – people are more likely to repeat behaviors that have been rewarded and less likely to repeat behaviors that have been punished  positive attitude towards the actions they have been rewarded for o Social comparison – placebo effects, observation  Conform attitudes to other peoples  Social learning – a type of learning in which people are more likely to imitate behaviors if they have seen others rewarded for performing them, and less likely to imitate behaviors if they have seen others punished for performing them • Is important for enabling humans to be cultural beings o Social networks, relationships, and attitude similarity  Direction of causality is unclear  unclear if social groups cause common attitudes or if common attitudes form from who you want to socialize with  People are attracted to others like themselves in terms of their attitudes or we become like the people we are spending time with o Genetics  Have parents attitudes o Mere exposure effect  The tendency for people to come to like things simply because they see or encounter them repeatedly  Seeing something over and over is enough to make you like it  BUT, if you initially dislike something, being exposed to it repeatedly will not make you like it more • Hate a song on the radio, the more you hear it, the more you hate it  Can influence attitudes toward oneself o Implicit vs. explicit attitudes (Implicit Association Test) Implicit attitudes – automatic and non-conscious evaluative responses  Explicit attitudes – controlled and conscious evaluative responses  Implicit and explicit attitudes may conflict, unconsciously you may like something that you consciously dislike • Attitude-behavior link – it’s weak, why? o Specificity of the behavior and relevance to the attitude  Attitudes guide behavior o Stability vs. change over time o Reasoned action model  Attitude  Thinking  Behavior o Events, subjective norms o Attitude strength • Attitude change o Learning theory o Balance theory (noted in your textbook; Heider’s P-O-X theory)  Heider’s P-O-X theory (aka balance theory) – the idea that relationships among one person (P), the other person (O), and an attitude object (X) may be either balanced or unbalanced • Balanced is the term for consistency • Balanced states are preferred so when something is unbalanced, people are motivated to make it balanced o Equilibrium theory and Cognitive Dissonance  Cognitive Dissonance – the theory that inconsistencies produce psychological discomfort, leading people to rationalize their behavior or change their attitudes  People rationalize their behavior so as to bring their attitudes into line with their actions  Ingredients necessary for cognitive dissonance to occur • Feeling of free choice in decision • Outcome / consequence is tied to the decision • Minimal external justification • Can’t go back and change behavior / reverse decision • Will not be tested on irrational beliefs, religious beliefs, etc in chapter 7 Social Influence (overlaps with attitude change) • Compliance & persuasion o Persuasion – an attempt to change a person’s attitude, a form of social influence o Learning theory – pair with positive/negative affective stimulus o Norm of reciprocity and related techniques  Norm of reciprocity - When you do something nice you expect something nice in return and vice versa  Techniques based on commitment and consistency: • Foot-in-the-door technique – influence technique based on commitment, in which one starts with a small request in order to gain eventual compliance with a larger request• Low-ball technique – influence technique based on commitment, in which one first gets a person to comply with a seemingly low-cost request and only later reveals hidden additional costs • Bait-and-switch technique – influence technique based on commitment, in which one draws people in with an attractive offer that is unavailable and then switches them to a less attractive offer that is available • Labeling technique – influence technique based on consistency, in which one assigns a label to an individual and then requests a favor that is consistent with the label • Legitimization-of-paltry-favors technique – influence technique in which a requester makes a small amount of aid acceptable  Techniques based on reciprocation • Door-in-the-face technique – influence technique based on reciprocity, in which one starts with an inflated request and then retreats to a smaller request that appears to be a concession • That’s-not-all technique – influence technique based on reciprocity, in which one first makes an inflated request but, before the person can answer yes or no, sweetens the deal by offering a discount or bonus  Techniques based on scarcity • Limited-number technique – influence technique based on scarcity, in which one tells people that an item is in short supply • Fast-approaching-deadline technique – influence technique based on scarcity, in which one tells people an item or a price is only available for a limited time • Pique technique – influence technique in which one captures people’s attention, as by making a novel


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UMD PSYC 221 - Exam 2 Study Guide

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