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Anthropology Exam One Informatioin Principle Figures in History of Evolutionary Thought Carl Von Linne 1707 1778 o Creationist considered all species made by God o Proponent of the Principle of the Fixity of Species species are immutable unchangeable after their creation Jean Baptiste Lamarck 1744 1824 o Theory of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics Theory of Use and Disuse Tenants Propositions of this theory All Organisms have needs to survive These needs are satisfied by the use and modification of existing organs or by the production or development of new organs Continued use of organs leads to an increase in size and complexity disuse leads to a reduction in size and their loss These changes that occur during one s lifetime are inheritable and can be passed down to one s Georges Cuvier 1769 1839 offspring o Theory of Catastrophism In the past there were violent geological and climatic events that cause the extinction of species in the effected areas After the cataclysmic event subsided species from neighboring areas migrated into the areas The immigrant species were similar to those that went extinct but were not identical Charles Lyell 1797 1875 o Theory of Uniformitarianism forces acting today that shape the Earth are the same forces that acted in the past Thomas Malthus 1766 1834 o Essay on the Principle of Population population size increases exponentially whereas food resources increase linearly Charles Darwin over time o Theory of Natural Selection explains how a species changes Galapagos Islands studied animals and developed questions about differences in species On the Origin of Species published in 1859 Tenants of Darwin s Theory of Natural Selection Reproductive potential of a population is high but actual population size remains the same Resources in the environment are in limited supply individuals within a population compete for the resources Biological variation in a population is normal Any hereditary variation that allows any organisms even a slight advantage in competition for resources will be perpetuated Survive live longer pass down traits Those with favorable traits will survive and produce more offspring that those without the favorable trait Over time there will be an increase in frequency of the favorable traits in the population Suggested Pan Genesis Theory representative cells from organs were stored in ova and sperm and were passed to children Alfred Russell Wallace 1823 1913 o He also in addition to Darwin proposed species change by natural selection he did not use the phrase natural selection Gregor Mendell 1822 1884 o The results of his pea plant experiment were published in 1866 o Round vs Wrinkled seed of a pea plant Pollinated strictly round plants with strictly wrinkled seeds for the parental generations 1st Generation after parental 100 Round Made from Round x Round 2nd Generation 75 Round 25 Wrinkled See notebook for genetics notes Punnett Squares etc Terms to Know Reproduction Genetics Principle of Segregation Genes occur in pairs in an individual organism In the production of sex cells the pair of genes is separated Each sex cell has one gene of the pair Gene Segment of DNA that codes for a protein Allele Alternative form of the same gene Genotype Set of genes possessed by an individual Phenotype Physical manifestation of the genotype or physical characteristics Homozygous Having two copies of the same allele Heterozygous Having one copy each of different alleles Dominant Allele Expressed phenotypically in both homozygotes and heterozygotes Recessive Allele Expressed phenotypically only in a homozygote Principle of Independent Assortment Segregation of one pair of genes does not influence the segregation of other pairs of genes There is more genetic variability than phenotypic variability in a species Homologous Chromosomes have the same sequence of genes Interphase of Meiosis and Mitosis Genes are active Chromosomes replicate duplication Chromatids identical strands of DNA Centromere constricted portion of a chromosome that holds two o Chromosomes align independently from one another chromatids together Mitosis Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Results o Centromeres divide o Two cells are produced o Two cells are produced each cell has the diploid chromosome number o Diploid full complement of chromosomes o Both daughter cells are genetically identical to the parent cell and to each other o The ultimate function of mitosis is in the production of cells that are genetically identical with the parent cell Meiosis after interphase Sex cells are produced by meiosis The function of meiosis is the production of sex cells to transmit genetic material to offspring Prophase I o Homologous chromosomes synapse Synapse pairing of homologous chromosomes o Crossing over exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes Metaphase I o Homologous chromosomes remain paired with one another nonhomologous pairs of chromosomes align independently o Two cells are formed goes into Prophase II o Chromosomes align independently from one another from one another o Centromeres do not divide Anaphase I Telophase I Prophase II o Same as Telophase I Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II o Centromeres divide o Four cells are formed Results o Four cells are produced each cell has the haploid chromosome number o Haploid one half of the chromosome number o Each daughter cell is genetically different from the parent cell and from one another o Ultimate function of meiosis is the production of genetically variable sex cells Mitosis versus Meiosis Number of daughter cells Two in mitosis Four in meiosis Number of chromosomes in daughter cell Diploid for mitosis Haploid for meiosis Genetic structure of daughter cell versus parent Identical in mitosis different from parents and one another in meiosis Functional result Exact genetic duplication for mitosis virtually infinite genetic variability among daughter cells for meiosis Replication duplication of a chromosome 2 Replication occurs during interphase When a chromosome replicates two chromatids are produced and the chromatids are held together by a centromere A chromosome is made up of DNA replication of a chromosome is the same as replication of DNA o DNA is a double helical molecule DNA is composed of nucleotides o A nucleotide consists of phosphoric acid sugar and a base Four bases o Adenine o Cytosine o Guanine o Thymine Replication semi conservation each DNA strand acts as a template i e master strand for

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LSU ANTH 1001 - Anthropology Exam One Information

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