FIU CHM 4130 - CHAPTER 8_Xiao_Introduction_to_Optical_Atomic_Spectrometry_2018 (1) (45 pages)

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CHAPTER 8_Xiao_Introduction_to_Optical_Atomic_Spectrometry_2018 (1)



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Optical Atomic Spectroscopy The elements present in a sample are atomized by atomization process Optical Spectrometry Absorption Emission Fluorescence Mass Spectrometry X Ray Spectrometry An iron atom and its four unpaired electrons Orbitals and Electrons Electrons exist at distinct orbitals and have spin Motion of the electrons absorption or emission measured Energy Level Diagrams Every elements has unique set of atomic orbitals p d f levels split by spin orbit coupling Spin s and orbital l motion create magnetic fields that perturb each other couple if fields parallel slightly higher energy if fields antiparallel slightly lower energy N N N S S N vs S S Define SO coupling by J total angular momentum Na atom and Na ion Valence Electron Energy level diagrams single external electron Energy level diagram for atomic magnesium Spin orientations Spins are paired No split Spins are unpaired Energy splitting Similar pattern between atoms but different spacing Spectrum of ion different to atom Separations measured in electronvolts eV 1eV 1 602x10 19 C 1 V J C 1 602x10 19 J 96 484 kJ mol 1 As of electrons increases of levels increases Emission spectra become more complex Li 30 lines Cs 645 lines Cr 22 CEM 333 page 7 3 Atomic spectroscopy Absorption Emission Fluorescence Atomic Absorption Spectra Energy level diagrams Absorption 3s 3s 4p 3p Atomic Emission Spectra Energy level diagrams Emission 4d 3p 3p 3s Atomic Fluorescence Spectra 4p 3p 3p 589 0 nm and 589 6 nm 330 3 nm 285 2 nm 3s 3s Mg Na Atomic Fluorescence Spectra Resonance fluorescence Nonresonance fluorescence Line Broadening Desire narrow lines for accurate identification Broadened by i uncertainty principle ii pressure broadening iii Doppler effect iv electric and magnetic fields Atomic line widths Atomic line widths 1 Uncertainty Effects i Uncertainty Principle Heisenberg uncertainty principle Quantum idea places stateslimits must measure Themechanical nature of the matter on the precision for with some which mi



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