FIU CHM 4130 - CHAPTER 6B_Xiao_Introduction_to_Spectroscopy_2018 (38 pages)

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CHAPTER 6B_Xiao_Introduction_to_Spectroscopy_2018



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Introduction to Spectroscopic Methods Chapter 6 Part 2 Optical Wave Theory 1 2 Light as Particles Eugene Hecht Optics Addison Wesley Reading MA 1998 3 hc E h E Packet Energy h Planck s Constant c Speed of Light meters seconds Wavelength meters Photon Theory 4 5 The Photoelectric Effect Douglas A Skoog et al Principles of Instrumental Analysis Thomson 2011 6 Cut off Observed results Current is propor2onal to the intensity of the radia2on V0 depends on the frequency of the radia2on V0 depends on the chemical composi2on of the coa2ng on the photocathode V0 is independent of the intensity of the incident radia2on Treat electromagnetic radiation as a stream of discrete particles Douglas A Skoog et al Principles of Instrumental Analysis Thomson 2013 7 KEm eV0 h KEm maximum kine2c energy Cut off h Planck s constant frequency work func2on a constant that is characteris2c of surface material E h KEm E h c KEm Douglas A Skoog et al Principles of Instrumental Analysis Thomson 2011 8 Quantum theory 9 Quantum theory Quantum theory by Planck 1900 Two important postulates 1 Atoms ions and molecules can exist in certain discrete states characterized by de nite amounts of energy When a species changes its state it adsorbs or emits an amount of energy exactly equal to the energy di erence between the states 2 When atoms ions or molecules absorb or emit radiaKon in making the transiKon from one energy state to another the frequency or the wavelength of the radiaKon is related to the energy di erence between the states by the equaKon E1 E0 h hc 10 Transi2on Rota2onal transi2on range of absorpKon far IR Vibra2onal transi2on near mid IR Electronic transi2on Electronic transi2on E0 to E1 E0 to E2 near UV VIS far UV 11 Interaction of Radiation and Matter Emission and chemiluminescence Nonradiative excitation processes 12 Interaction of Radiation and Matter Absorption 13 Interaction of Radiation and Matter Photoluminescence 14 Interaction of Radiation and Matter Raman Scattering 15 Emission



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