UMass Amherst PSYCH 383 - Study Guide for Exam 1 (7 pages)

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Study Guide for Exam 1



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Study Guide for Exam 1

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Pages:
7
School:
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Course:
Psych 383 - Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy Documents
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Psych 383 Study Guide for Exam 1 Definitions of Counseling Psychotherapy Know the types of activities in which clinicians are involved Psychotherapy assessment teaching supervision research writing consultation administration Understand the main concepts embedded in the definitions of psychotherapy discussed in class in P N problems of an emotional nature in which a trained person with the object of removing modifying or retarding existing symptoms involves disturbed patterns of behavior patient with established relationship with a professional adapted or individualized for the particular client and his or her disorder involves a trained therapist a client who has a mental disorder problem or complaint for the purpose of assisting people to modify their behaviors cognitions emotions and or other personal characteristics in directions that the participants deem desirable theory assessment are key to being informed Know the historical differences between counseling and psychotherapy Shorter process normal or mildly maladjusted clients more problem vs person oriented teacher vs detective often considerable expertise in a particular area e g marriage alcohol vocational Overview of Counseling Psychotherapy Understand the definition and role of theory in psychotherapy Provides an organized and consistent perspective on human behavior psychopathology and treatment a good theory of psychotherapy creates the treatment goals and outlines a frame for how to pursue them strict adherence fit patient to theory flexible application fit theory to patient Understand the different levels of theoretical abstraction High Global Theories e g Freudian analysis Rogerian Person centered Low Specific Techniques e g dream interpretation exposure Middle Change Processes e g consciousness raising catharsis likely most fruitful argued to be most critical way to think of cases Familiarize yourself with key terms in chapter 1 of P N Action therapies the processes of conditional stimuli and contingency control Awareness insight therapies work with consciousness consciousness raising Catharsis the therapeutic release of pent up feelings and emotions Choosing power of choice in producing behavior change Common nonspecific factors therapeutic commonalities shared by all forms of psychotherapy and not specific to any one Consciousness raising increasing an individual s consciousness Contingency management behavior changes are made by modifying the contingencies in the environment Corrective emotional experiences cathartic reactions come directly from within the person Counterconditioning changing our behavior to the stimulus Dramatic relief the belief that cathartic reactions can be evoked by observing emotional scenes in the environment Education when the info given a client concerns environmental events Expectation the patient s faith in the institution itself the confidence in therapist the treatment Feedback when the info given a client concerns the individual s own actions and experiences Hawthorne effect clients improve due to increases in morale novelty and esteem that come from having others attend to them Integration seeking what is useful and cordial in each therapy system rather than looking for what is most easily criticized Placebo seek to induce positive expectations in clients like giving a sugar pill instead of medication Processes of change represent a middle level of abstraction between global theories and specific techniques Psychotherapy informed and intentional application of clinical methods and interpersonal stances derived from established psychological principles for the purpose of assisting people to modify their behaviors cognitions emotions and or other personal characteristics in directions that the participants deem desirable Reevaluation modifying our internal responses to the external consequences without changing those consequences Self liberation choosing involves the individual becoming aware of new alternatives including the deliberate creation of new alternatives for living involves experiencing the anxiety inherent in being responsible for which alternative is followed Social liberation when changes in the environment make more alternatives available to individuals Specific factors unique factors in disparate psychotherapies Stimulus control changing the environment Theory a set of statements used to explain the data in a given area a consistent perspective on human behavior psychopathology and the mechanisms of therapeutic change Therapeutic content intrapersonal conflicts interpersonal conflicts individuo social conflicts beyond conflict to fulfillment Transtheoretical across theories reduces the therapeutic morass to a manageable number of processes of change A Brief History of Psychotherapy Know the relevant history before psychology became a separate field focus on what discussed in class Greeks biopsychosocial perspective Hippocrates classified 4 temperaments Middle Ages supernatural perspective Renaissance renewed interest in medicine Descartes mind body split Reform movements earliest roots of clinical psychology Pinel Todd Dix Know the three eras Victorian turn of century to WWII and WWII to present and how the self psychopathology were conceptualized in each of these eras focus on what discussed in class European Victorian mid late 19th century self rational calculating disciplined but also dangerous sexual aggressive impulses psychopathology hysteria neurasthenia sexual perversion violence Freud s drive theory inappropriate impulse discharge use of hypnosis to treat hysteria launching pad for psychoanalysis American Victorian mid late 19th century self rational driven conflicted but also more optimistic na ve preoccupation with spiritual emptiness moral confusion rise of mesmerism as first type of psychotherapy in USA hypnosis telepathy spiritual guidance other mind cure most serious pathology lack of economic productivity Turn of century to WWII 1900 1939 psychoanalysis gaining momentum medical profession claims exclusive rights Freud lectures at Clark 1909 development of psychoanalytic training institutes clinics in US psychologist mostly confined to university counseling centers child guidance clinics early rumblings of Behaviorism Watson 1920 call to view psychology as purely objective experimental branch of natural science therapy approaches not fully developed until later in century goal to predict control behavior focus on current problems of living


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