UMass Amherst PSYCH 383 - Study Guide for Exam 3 (5 pages)

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Study Guide for Exam 3



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Study Guide for Exam 3

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Pages:
5
School:
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Course:
Psych 383 - Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy Documents
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Study Guide for Exam 3 Psych 383 Exposure Behavior Therapies Understand the main tenets of exposure based therapies learning theory conceptualization of psychopathology key therapeutic processes principles Mowrer s two factor theory of learning below Psychopathology conditioned anxiety avoidance Freud s neurotic paradox failure of maladaptive anxiety to extinguish despite its self defeating nature short term learned behavior decreases anxiety long term learned behavior promotes even more avoidance intensity of anxiety Emotional Processing Theory Foa Kozak traumatic or feared experiences that go unprocessed remain pathologically represented in memory thus must make effort to process the traumatic or feared experience to alter the fear structure Therapy process extinction reduction of conditioned fear anxiety because no longer reinforced by avoidance exposure response prevention E RP activates pathological structure while at same time introduces corrective info that can be transformed into more adaptive memory structure approaches on continuum from gradual to intense and from imaginal to in vivo Therapy principles exposure therapist must stay with exposure based exercise until anxiety at least partially extinguished need to be well disciplined overcome own tendency to avoid producing discomfort in others rationale confidence in treatment are key transparent rationale for tough love in theory no relationship needed to complete treatment principles however relationship can be facilitative empathy trust safety support Know Mowrer s two factor theory of learning 1 Classical conditioning pair aversive stimulus with neutral conditioned stimulus conditioned fear response 2 Operant conditioning conditioned fear anxiety response motivates avoidance of conditioned stimulus avoidance response associated with fear anxiety reduction anxiety reduction reinforces avoidant behavior Generalization stimuli similar to conditioned stimulus elicit similar fear and thus more expansive avoidance Understand the meaning of key exposure therapy terms extinction exposure response prevention imaginal in vivo exposure etc Extinction reduction of conditioned fear anxiety because no longer reinforced by avoidance Exposure Response Prevention E RP activates pathological structure while at same time introduces corrective info that can be transformed into more adaptive memory structure Imaginal In Vivo Exposure approaches on continuum from gradual to intense Know the main research findings for exposure based therapies know the main themes of the research base vs findings from specific studies Various levels of support for Implosive Therapy EMDR most impressive support for E RP for OCD significant improvement in 60 75 of patients more effective than antidepressant medications especially for rituals less side effects dropout greater maintenance than medications Know the primary critiques limitations of exposure based approaches Really just part of behavioral tradition learning paradigm exposure insufficient goal of treatment to make unconscious conscious not simply to make the fear less fearful involve acting on doing to points vs being with patients treatment could be worse than disorder treatment too late in the game need to address social causes to fear conditioning Familiarize yourself with key terms in chapter 8 of P N Learned avoidance serves to reduce anxiety in the short term Response prevention extinguishes anxiety by forcing the animal to remain in the presence of the conditioned stimuli Generalization anything similar to original fear conditioned stimulus will elicit similar feelings of fear and anxiety Imaginal exposure feared stimulus is presented to patient through their imagination In vivo exposure feared stimulus presented in real life situation Habituation 50 reduction in anxiety to fear producing stimuli is achieved Breathing retraining teaching clients to breathe calmly from the diaphragm Cue exposure in treatments for addictive disorders using aversive stimulus to recondition patient so that the smell of beer sight of vodka bottle no longer elicits original conditioned responses happiness Symptom exacerbation prolonged exposure might cause this symptoms get worse which leads to premature termination or inferior outcomes Clinical significance ensures the magnitude of treatment gains is substantial and meaningful Statistical significance this alone tends to inflate small insubstantial treatment gains useless Virtual Reality VR exposure therapy integrates real time computer graphics visual display and other sensory input devices to immerse patients in computer simulated environment that they find anxiety producing Dismantling Studies Research designs to break down a psychotherapy into its constituent ingredients to determine which are the active ingredients Validity of Cognition VOC scale a positive cognition assessed on seven points where 1 is completely false and 7 is completely true Subjective units of distress SUD 0 is no stress and 10 is highest stress imaginable Patients are asked to give SUD rating of how they are feeling right that moment while holding the memory and negative cognition in mind Desensitization phase longest phase asked to bring up traumatic image think of the negative cognition and notice the feelings attached to it as he or she follows the therapist s hands with his or her eyes Installation install and increase the strength of the positive cognition Cognitive interweave proactive version of EMDR that deliberately interlaces clinician derived statements with client generated material instead of relying solely on the clients spontaneous processing Looping Repetitive thoughts that do not move and that block processing Pro bono free of cost Treatment fidelity effectiveness of EMDR for PTSD this is the example used appears to be higher in rigorous studies that closely follow the specific treatment protocol Know the most defining characteristics of behavioral approaches Focus on behavior learning principles environmental conditions vs internal personality traits active directive treatment assessment regular evaluation incorporating person s everyday life into treatment treatment as an empirical endeavor Understand the main tenets of behavior therapies learning theory conceptualization of psychopathology key therapeutic processes techniques Learning theory as foundation Psychopathology anxiety as cause of most behavior problems anxiety adaptive in truly threatening situations BUT


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