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UI PSY 2401 - Birth Experiences

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i. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/02/04/christian-berthelot-cesar_n_6598858.html?ncid=fcbklnkushpmg00000063Lecture 6 Outline of Last LectureI. I. Discussion of ERA II. Featured ArticleIII. Studying Prenatal Developmenta. Epigenesisb. Embryologyc. Video Clipd. How do we build a Baby?e. Prenatal Development ProcessIV. Prenatal Environment: Sensory Experience and Behavior Mattersa. Touchb. Tastec. Smelld. Sighte. Hearing (from 6 mo. Gestation)V. How do we know Early Experience Matters?a. Gottlieb: ducksb. Turkeweitzc. Habituationd. Overview of Prenatal PeriodOutline of Current Lecture I. The Birth Experiencesa. Aspects of the birth experiencesb. Cultural/generational differencesc. Photographs of babies just after birthII. The Newborn Infanta. Statei. The infants level of arousal and engagement in the environmentb. What can newborns do?i. Sleepii. Cry/Smileiii. Reflexesiv. Suckc. Negative OutcomesPSY 2401 1st Editiond. LBW Infantse. Risk Factors and Resilience’sIII. Model of Interactiona. Three Key elementsi. Genotypeii. Phenotypeiii. Environmentb. Traditional Relationsc. Norm of ReactionIV. Genesa. What do genes do?b. Genetic origins of human disease and disordersc. Are genes/proteins really that big of a deal?i. Cystic Fibrosisii. YesCurrent LectureI. The Birth Experiencesa. Aspects of the birth experiencesi. Including squeezing in the birth canal1. Have adaptive value and increase the likelihood of survivala. Ex: tactile and vestibular stimulationb. Facilitates breathing, suckling, early learning b. Cultural/generational differencesi. Having C-Section are very common nowii. Having dads in the room are very common, or just multiple family membersiii. Many people are having natural child birth in the United Statesc. Photographs of babies just after birthi. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/02/04/christian-berthelot-cesar_n_6598858.html?ncid=fcbklnkushpmg00000063II. The Newborn Infanta. Statei. The infants level of arousal and engagement in the environment1. Ranges from deep sleep to intense activity 2. Arousal-influences the newborn’s exploration and feedbackb. What can newborns do?i. Sleep1. Amount of total sleep about the same over first 4 months (12-13 hours)2. Sleep 2-3 hours at a time3. As newborns get older, longer sleep bouts because they are feeding less4. 4 months: infants sleep through an 8 hour night5. amount of REM sleep very high early….decreases dramatically during the first year (50% to 20% by 3-4 years of age)a. REM (rapid eye movement) sleep: an active sleep stat associated with dreaming in adults and is characterized by quick, jerky eye movements b. Non-REM sleep: A quiet or deep sleep state characterized by the absence of motor activity or eye movements and by regular, slow brain waves, breathing, and heart ratec. Autostimulation theory: brain activity during REM facilitates developmentof the visual system and neural connectionsii. Cry/Smile1. Newborns communicate hunger, pain, discomfort2. Crying peaks during first 3 months3. Later crying is less frequent and more psychological rather than physical reasons4. More communicativea. Learning and parents interpret better iii. Reflexesiv. Suckc. Negative Outcomesi. Infant mortality-death during the first year (US is 23rd highest!)1. SES and lack of health insurances are associated with high rates of infant mortality2. Low birth weight (LWB=<5.5 lbs.)a. Premature (<35 weeks gestation) vs. small gestational age (SGA)d. LBW Infantsi. More medical complications, have more developmental difficulties1. Extensive parent contact and more touch ii. Challenging for parents1. Stress infant’s disorganized states2. Different developmental timetable!e. Risk Factors and Resilience’si. A negative outcome is more likely when there are multiple risk factorsii. Developmental resilience1. Successful development in the face of multiple developmental hazards (infant and caregiver “driven”)III. Model of Interactiona. Three Key elementsi. Genotype1. The genetic material an individual inheritsii. Phenotype1. The observable of the including body characteristics and behavioriii. Environment1. Includes every aspect of the individual, and his or her surroundings, other than genesb. Traditional Relationsi. Parent Genotype—Childs Genotypeii. Child’s Genotype—Child’s Phenotypeiii. Child’s Environment—Child’s Phenotypeiv. Child’s Phenotype—Child’s Environment*Epigeneticsc. Norm of Reactioni. Refers to all the phenotypes that could theoretically result from a given genotype, in relation to all the environments in which it could survive and developii. “The phenotype is the unique consequence of a particular genotype developing in a particular environment” (Lewontin, 1982)IV. Genesa. What do genes do?i. Produce proteinii. Start/stop protein production of other genes—regulatory genesiii. Gene=segment of DNAiv. Sequence of nucleotide pairs (base pairs) contain “code” for proteinsb. Genetic origins of human disease and disordersi. Over 5,000 human diseases and disorders are presently known to have genetic originsii. Recessive gene1. PKU, sickle-cell anemia, cystic fibrosisiii. Single dominant gene1. Huntington’s diseaseiv. Sex-linked inheritance1. Fragile-X syndrome, hemophiliav. Many syndromes are known to have genetic basis, but the specific mechanism has not been established1. Ex: Dyslexia, Tourette’s Syndrome, Autism c. Are genes/proteins really that big of a deal?i. Cystic Fibrosis1. Disease of exocrine gland affecting pancreases and respiratory system2. Underproduction of protein3. Excess mucus4. Chronic infections5. Can’t digest food6. Sick and can’t fight infectionsii. Yes1. To understand what genes and proteins contribute to behavioral development, we have to specify how genes are linked to


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