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UI PSY 2401 - Discussion of ERA

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PSY 2401 1st Edition Lecture 5Outline of Last Lecture I. Research Methodsa. Way to elicit the behavior you are interested in from a particular set of participants b. The methodology you choose should be based onc. Infant Methodologies/Paradigmsi. Operant Conditioning Paradigmsii. Habituation Paradigmsiii. Preferential Lookingd. Examples: what can toddlers do?e. Toddler Methodologies/Paradigmsf. Research Designsi. Correlational Designsii. Experimental Designsiii. Cross-Sectional vs. Longitudinal iv. Microgenetic DesignsII. Prenatal Development a. Big Picture b. Overall Goalc. Modern Interactionismi. Conclusion from Human Genome projectd. Developmental Challenge Outline of Current Lecture I. Discussion of ERA II. Featured ArticleIII. Studying Prenatal Developmenta. Epigenesisb. Embryologyc. Video Clipd. How do we build a Baby?e. Prenatal Development ProcessIV. Prenatal Environment: Sensory Experience and Behavior Mattersa. Touchb. Tastec. SmellThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.d. Sighte. Hearing (from 6 mo. Gestation)V. How do we know Early Experience Matters?a. Gottlieb: ducksb. Turkeweitzc. Habituationd. Overview of Prenatal PeriodCurrent LectureI. Discussion of ERA a. Electronic Resource Assignment due in discussion sections b. Need to be done at ON CAMPUS computerII. Featured Articlea. “Fetal Exposure to Excessive Stress Hormones in the Womb Linked to Adult Mood Disorders”i. British Neurosciences Associationii. Exposure of the developing fetus to excessive levels of stress hormones inthe womb can cause mood disorders later in lifeiii. For the first time, researchers have found a mechanism that may underpin this processIII. Studying Prenatal Developmenta. Epigenesisi. Emergence of new structures and functions during developmentb. Embryologyi. The study of prenatal development-structure, effects on the emryo1. Importance of animal models2. Phylogenetic continuitya. Genetic make upb. How long you had an ancestor in common with somebodyc. Video Clipi. Conception to days before birth1. Within hours zygote divides into two identical cells2. Traveling through the fallopian tubed. How do we build a Baby?i. The simplistic solution: genetic programii. The challenge: every cell has the same genetic material….how do cells “know” what they are?iii. The solution: the environment tells them….1. 3 layers of cells form2. Different locations of these layers causes different cell types to forma. Digestive system; heart, muscles, bones, spinal cord, brain, skin3. Cells communicate with their neighbors via chemical signals that turn genes on/offe. Prenatal Development Processi. Key point: it’s not all about nature/genesii. The prenatal cellular environment matters just as muchiii. Dramatic example: teratogens1. Environmental agents that cause damage during prenatal development2. Damage can be physical or psychological iv. Prenatal development is not just about genes and biology1. Cellular environment matters just as much2. However, must also consider fetal activity—another aspect of nature/nurture interactionIV. Prenatal Environment: Sensory Experience and Behavior Mattersa. Touchi. Grasping, sucking, rubbing, bumping walls of uterusb. Tastei. Swallows amniotic fluidii. Fetus has a sweet toothc. Smelli. Amniotic fluid has odor of what mom ateii. During fetal breathing, amniotic fluid comes into contact with olfactory receptorsd. Sighti. Negligiblee. Hearing (from 6 mo. Gestation)i. Internally generated sounds (mom’s heartbeat, breathing, etc.)ii. Externally generated sounds (mom’s voice and people talking to her)iii. Fetus reacts by changes in heartbeat and movement V. How do we know Early Experience Matters?a. Gottlieb: ducksi. Psychobiologist1. Introduced visual stimulia. Disrupted auditory learning later in lifeb. Developmental sequence of sensation and behavior is critical b. Turkeweitzi. If premature infants get too much visual stimulation 1. Damage visual system2. Disrupt early auditory learning3. Developmental sequence of sensation and behavior is critical c. Habituationi. Before birth1. Around 32 weeks the fetus shows signs of habituation (measured by changes In heartbeat)ii. After birth1. Hearing: “The Cat in the Hat,” recognizes mom’s voice, languages heard in the womb2. Smell: prefers own amniotic fluid3. Taste: recognizes carrot juice exposed as a fetus, but not since birth d. Overview of Prenatal Periodi. Instead of simple genetic view….1. Prenatal environment is a key player (ex: teratogens)2. Fetus is active and learninga. Behavioral development doesn’t start at


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