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IUPUI PSY 380 - Diagnosis and Assessment

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Lecture 4Current Lecture Chapter 3: Diagnosis and Assessment I. Cornerstones of Diagnosis and Assessment II. Classification and Diagnosis III. Psychological Assessment IV. Neurobiological Assessment V. Cultural and Ethnic Diversity and Assessment Diagnosis • The classification of disorders by symptoms and signs.  Advantages of diagnosis:• Facilitates communication among professionals• Advances the search for causes and treatments• Cornerstone of clinical careIndicators of a good assessment instrument Reliability asks, will I get the same answer Validity= accuracy, asks, will I get the right answer Sensitivity AcceptabilityTheories of intelligence Guilford’s theory – no general mental ability, 150 or more abilities• Type of mental operation (evaluation, remembering)• Content of operation (people, things, numbers)• End product of operation (classification, relationships) Gardner’s multiple intelligences – intelligence refers to the broad set of mental operations that underlie human activities (music, education, social skills) • Linguistic, Musical, Logical-Mathematical, Spatial, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, and Naturalist Modern Classification and Diagnosis Diagnostic and Statistical Manualof Mental Disorders (DSM) published by American Psychiatric Association• First edition published in 1952 Previous edition: DSM-IV-TR (fourth edition, revised)• Published in 1994, text revised in 2000Psych 380 1st Edition• Many texts and research articles will continue to use DSM-IV terminologyfor a period of time Current edition: DSM-5• Published summer of 2013Ethnic and Cultural Considerations Mental illness universal Culture can influence:• Risk factors• Types of symptoms experienced• Willingness to seek help• Availability of treatments DSM-IV-TR includes: • Enhanced cultural sensitivity• Appendix of 25 culture-bound syndromesAmok, Drat, Koru, Taijin kyofusho, Hikikomori, etc. Example culture specific disorders A term originally used in West Africa, brain fag refers to a condition experienced by high school or university students in response to academic stress. Symptoms include “fatigued brain,” blurred vision,heat, and pain, pressure or tightness around the head and neck. Mal de ojo (a Spanish phrase translated into English as “evil eye”) is a concept widely found in Mediterranean cultures and elsewhere in the world and is believed to result from looking at someone, usually a child, with envy. The target of the envy can develop a variety of symptoms, including fitful sleep, crying with no apparent cause,diarrhea, vomiting, and fever.Criticisms of the DSM Too many diagnoses?• Should relatively common reactions be pathologized?• ComorbidityPresence of a second diagnosis45% of people diagnosed with one disorder will meet criteria for a second disorder Reliability in everyday practiceHow do we tell if diagnostic system is any good? Each diagnosis should:• Include all the symptoms for that diagnosis• Differentiate from similar diagnoses (bipolar vs schizoaffective disorder)• Give the same diagnosis when used by different individuals• Be related to predicted associated factors • Provide information about course, treatment,


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