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# U of M CHEM 1061 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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Econ 101 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 12Lecture 1 (January 21)Two types of changes are Physical and Chemical. What are the differences in the properties and the changes of the two?Physical changes are those that the property of a substance changes by itself. These include things you can see with the naked eye like color and shape, as well as density melting and melting point. When a physical change occurs, the physical properties are altered but not its composition. A change in the state of matter is a physical change.Chemical changes are those that the properties of a substance change into or interacts with another substance. When a chemical change occurs, the substance is converted into a different substance. An example of a chemical change is paper burning.KNOW The following Metric Conversions, both the prefix and the conversionfactors.Prefix Abbreviation Conversion Factorkilo k 1000 x = 1 kxcenti c 1 x = 100 cxmilli m 1 x = 1000 mxmicro μ 1 x = 1 x 106μxnano n 1 x = 1 x 109nx*where x is any metric base unit like meters, grams, liters, etc…These are the sameconversions in your text (page 14), but I like to remember whole numbers ratherthan decimals. Use whichever makes more sense to you.1 mL = 1 cm32.54 cm = 1.00 inches(this is the only English to Metric conversion I think you need to memorize)Lecture 2 (September 23) What are the rules in calculating significant figures (Multiplication/Division and Addition/Subtraction)?a. Multiplication/Division: Keep the lowest number of Significant Figures.i. Example. 5652.99x1.2=6788.588 but is rounded to 6800 because 1.2 has 2 significant figures and 5652.99 has 6 significant figures.b. Addition/Subtraction: Keep lowest number of decimal placesi. Example: 2391.659-21.2=2370.459 but is rounded to 2370.4 because 21.2has one decimal spot.What are the differences between electrons, neutrons, and protons?Electrons are negatively charged particles in an atom that do not reside in the nucleus, whereas a proton is a positively charged particle that makes up the nucleus. A neutron is a neutrally charged particle that along with the proton, makes up the nucleus.KNOW THIS:What are the horizontal rows of elements called on the Periodic Table of Elements? What are the verticle columns called? How is the Periodic Table of Elements arranged?Horizontal Rows of elements are called PERIODS and have different properties than other periods. Vertical Columns of elements are called ROWS and have similar properties. The Periodic table is organized by increasing atomic number.Lecture 3 (January 26)Ionic bonds happen between ________ and _________. Covalent Bonds happen between ________ and ________. Metals; Nonmetals. Nonmetals; Nonmetals. Ionic bonding is the transfering of electrons. The metals transfer electrons to the nonmetals. To predict the number of electrons gained/lost, look at the periodic table and figure out the Noble Gas Configuration.Covalent bonds are the sharing of electrons. The nucleus of one atom attracts the electrons of the other atom and vice versa.KNOW THESE POLYATOMIC IONS FOR MIDTERM 1:Name of Ion/Ion Formula Ammonium NH4 + Acetate C2H3O2 - (also written as CH3CO2 - ) Carbonate CO3 2- Cyanide CNHydroxide OHNitrate NO3 –Nitrite NO2 – Sulfate SO4 2- Sulfite SO3 2- Phosphate PO4 3- Phosphite PO3 3- Perchlorate ClO4 – Chlorate ClO3 – Permanganate MnO4 – Hydrogen carbonate HCO3 - (also called bicarbonate) Dichromate Cr2O7 2- Chromate CrO4 2-How would you name the IONIC compound CaBr2?To name ionic compounds, the cation is named first, then the anion. The cation is the name of the metal as it is. The anion changes the “ine” ending to “ide”. CaBr2 would be named Calcium Bromide.How would you name the ACID HCl?All acids contain Hydrogen, and all names are based on the anion. First, add enough Hydrogen to balance the charge, then add the prefix “Hydro” to the anion. Change the “ine” ending to “ic”and attach Acid as a separate word. The result of HCl would be Hydrochloric Acid.How would you name an oxoanion? Oxoanions have prefixes that can be found on Figure 2.18 of the textbook. Normally, change the“ate” to “ic” OR “ite” to “ous”. Also keep any prefixes associated with the oxoanion.Lecture 4 (January 28)How would you name the COVALENT compound CO2?A covalent compound is usually between two nonmetals. Name the metal in the smaller group first and the larger group metal second. To the metal you name second, add the “ide” ending. Use prefixes to show how many atoms there are. An example would be CO2 being Cabon Dioxide.What is the name of a Straight Chain Alkane dependent on?Straight chain alkanes contain Carbon and Hydrogen and are dependent on the number of Carbons. A Table to study is found on 2.7What is the Difference between formula mass and molecular mass?Nothing. Well, except for the fact that formula mass is the name given to the mass of an ionic compound and molecular mass is associated with covalent compounds. Otherwise you find them the exact same way-adding up the atomic masses and how many there are.How do you use Avogadro ’s number?Avogadro’s number is used to covert moles to number of entities. You can also convert grams to entities, but you have to first convert it to moles using conversion factors.Lecture 5 (January 30)True/False: You balance chemical equations by changing the subscript on the chemical formula.FALSE! Never change the subscript when balancing a chemical equation; it changes the composition of the chemical. ONLY change the coefficients!How do you determine the Limiting Reactant in a chemical formula?Multiply the number by the molar ratio in the formula. The reactant that produces the least amount of moles of the product is the limiting reactant.Lecture 6 (February 2)What is the difference between a solvent and a solute?A solvent is what dissolves the solute. It is usually the larger quantity and is often water. The Solute is the substance that dissolves in the solvent. Usually the smaller quantity. How do we measure concentration?Concentration is measured in units called molarity. It is the moles of a solute over the Liters in a solution.Distinguish differences between ionic and covalent compounds when dissolved in water.Ionic compounds are soluble substances that are strong electrolytes. They conduct and complete electrical circuits because of their ions. When ionic compounds are dissolved in water,the cation are attracted to the

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