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POLS 101 1st Edition Lecture 9Outline of Last Lecture I. Rights of The Accused- Amendments 4,5,6Outline of Current Lecture I. Civil liberties and RightsII. Amendments 13, 14, 15III. Laws and Practices written by states that limited civil rightsIV. 20th Century NAACPV. 20th Century Civil Rights MovementCurrent LectureI. Civil liberties - protect government infringement on free speech, religious freedom, rights of the accused. A. Civil Rights- the right to not be discriminated against because of race, religion, ethnicorigin, or sexual orientation II. Amendments 13, 14, 15A. 13th Amendment- prohibits slavery (1865)- after civil warB. 14th Amendment- no state shall make or enforce any law that limits privedges or immunities of U.S. citizens. State may not deprive any person of life, liberty, or property. State may not deprive any person of equal protection of law.C. 15th Amendment- protection of voting rightsD. 13 and 15 Amendment were ratified but states chose to ignore them for some time. III. Laws and Practices written by states that limited civil rightsA. Jim Crow LawsB. Literacy Tests for votingThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.C. Poll Tax- couldn’t vote if couldn’t affordD. Grandfather Clause- if your grandfather could not vote, and you couldn’t prove that he could vote, then in result you could not vote.E. Segregation Laws- Plessey V. Ferguson (1896)- Supreme Court declared that separatebut equal were constitutional, segregation is condoned by government.IV. 20th Century- National Association for the Advancement of Colored PeopleA. Worked to have segregation to be declared unconstitutionalB. Also worked for obtaining equal facilities.C. When organization tried to get states and federal to change laws, they had no political power so states and government refused. So the NAACP turned to the courts for support.D. 1938 Missouri Ex Rel Gaines V. Canada- Supreme court ruled that an African American who wanted to attend law school In Missouri could not be kept out of a white law school. E. 1950- Sweat V. Painter- Black man denied admission to Univ of Texas law school, although the university formed a black law school. The black law school was not equal to white law school. Supreme court ruled that Univ. Of Texas could not deny the black man admission to the regular law school.F. 1954- Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas- this case overturned Plessey V. Ferguson. Separate but equal was deemed unconstitutional. Decision of court was unanimous and highly unpopular.G. 1955- Same court case heard, Supreme Court held to removing segregation, attempt by the court to emphasize the importance of carrying out desegregation. Court could not enforce desegregation, so segregation remained mostly in place.V. 20th Century Civil Right MovementA. Rosa Parks sitting in front of bus sparked civil rights protests, civil disobedience, restaurant sit ins.B. Protests of Segregation resulted in loss of lives.C. Young idealistic white students from Northern States headed south to help the movement.D. Nightly news started showing police violence against peaceful black protestorsE. 1964- Civil Rights Acts- Public Accommodations Section- most hated part of the act, specified that business owners and involved in interstate commerce, you were required to serve African Americans. Declared segregation to be illegal.F. Committee chairman in Congress had tremendous power of congressional acts, the judge smith left and returned to district, could not pass laws without judge smith present, made excuse for absence, absence was intentional to stop the convening of civil rights committee to review bill. Judge Smith wrote inprotection for women in the Civil Rights bill. Women are protected by Civil Rights Acts of 1964.G. Filabuster- Tactic used by bill opposers to keep senate in session for 24 hours, there is no senate rule to limit debate. Filabuster was used for Civil Rights Acts by few people to run the clock and run time out of congress.H. Quorum- must have certain number of senators present to vote on bill, senators come out of office to present minimum number of people present for debate to continue. Vote of Closure used to close Filabuster, need 67 out of 100 votes in order to limit time of senate debate.I. Voting Rights Act of 1965- made literacy tests illegal, and provided for federal officials to go into areas that had history of voting discrimination to be present at polling places during elections to ensure that African Americans were not refused to vote. In 5 years, number of voters in southern states had doubled.J. School Segregation in south was well into the 60’s. President sent national guardto force southern schools to admit African American students. Congress withdrew federal funding from schools who refused to allow enrollment of African American


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