New version page

O-K-State BIOL 1114 - Exam 1 Study Guide

This preview shows page 1-2-3-4-5 out of 16 pages.

View Full Document
View Full Document

End of preview. Want to read all 16 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a GradeBuddy member to access this document.

View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

Stage INPUT OUTPUT Where?BIOL 1114 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lecture: 1 – 8KEY TERMS: - THERMOREGULATION Heat transfer mechanisms taught:Conduction—transfer of energy (often heat) directly by contact from one object to anotherConvection—transfer of heat energy by mass movement of a fluid (gas or liquid) e.g. effects of water and wind on animal temperature; What is the effect of fur or feathers on convection?Radiation—heat transfer between 2 objects in absence of direct contact (e.g. solar radiation)Evaporation—loss of water in the form of a vapor; Evaporation requires heat. Therefore heat is transferred from organism to its surroundings by evaporation.Countercurrent exchange—In an extreme environment, formation of a temperature gradient within an animal as a result of contact between venous and arterial bloodflow (see illustration below.)Vasoconstriction vs. vasodilation—what happens to peripheral blood vessels in each case?When does it happen?Gradient—rate of change in a variable (a substance or heat) with distance*thermal neutral zone (TNZ)—temperature range over which an endothermic organism (e.g. bird or mammal) can maintain its temperature without changing its metabolic rate; TNZ is bounded by lower critical temp. & upper critical temp. Identify all the underlined terms from above on this diagram: [  How can you measure “metabolic rate”? [Note: Ambient temp. = environmental temp.]Endotherms—organisms (e.g. mammals & birds) whose source of body heat is metabolism Ectotherms—organisms (e.g. reptiles, amphibians, insects) whose source of body heat is its surrounding environment (ambient temp.)Homeotherms vs Poikilotherms- describes the response of animal to the temperature of the environment. Homeotherms maintain a constant temperature; poikilotherms’ body temp. fluctuates with that of environmentOsmoregulation Urine production: How is urine concentrated in a nephron? What is the role of the nephron loops within the kidney? What adaptation in nephrons loops enables animals in dry environments to survive?Diffusion—movement of a substance from a region where it is highly concentrated to to an area where it is less concentrated without energy input . (Recall that the greater the number of molecules dissolved in a solution, the lower its water concentration.)Osmosis- is a special form of diffusion; How and where does it occur?Active Transport —movement of a substance from a region where it is less concentrated to an area where it is more highly concentrated; requires energy inputAs temperature increases, we can increase our surface area (S.A.) by stretching out which increases heat loss. Body volume, however, stays the same. As a result the total S.A. to Volume ratio increases. Humans use a similar behavioral mechanism in the cat shown above. During winter, if a person is cold they are likely to have a hunched appearance with arms held close to the body. As a result, surface area is decreased and we retain heat better. [S.A. to Volume ratio decreases.][ambient temp. = environmental temp.]Identify:1) the thermal neutral zone (TNZ)2) the critical lower point3) the critical upper pointIn which type of organism would this diagram accurately predict its metabolic rate?Describe at least 5 ways to measure “metabolic rate”.-- Conceptso A dependent variable is being_____1______ and is plotted on the _1_ axiso Independent variable is being _____2______ and is plotted on the _2_ axiso Controlled variables are _____3__in an experiment, and allows the manipulated experiment to be evident Observational (correlation)o Scientific Method:  1. Make an _____4________, and ask questions 2.Develop a hypothesis (causal _____5______) 3. Make predictions (if, then)- Design experiment(test ________6___) 4. Make Conclusion (hypothesis confirmed or rejected)- Confirmed= __7___experiment- Rejected= ____8____hypothesiso Theory: hypothesis has repeatedly been supported (theory is always subject to change) Never_______, only supportedo Key definitions: Control group: Individuals or subjects in control are within the same treatment as the experimental group except that control is in an _______9_______ (nothing changes) Controlled Experiment: determines levels of amount of the independent variable of interest to apply to each group- At least 2 group involved- 1 not involved (control)- 3 Phases of Cellular Respiration**Metabolism= all steps are catalyzed by enzymes whose rate of activity depends upon temperature (gets energy from food)**o GLYCOLOSIS: (split glucose) oxidizes glucose into 2 ___10______ Preparatory Stage: glucose is derived from a more complex ____11__ (including glucose→ sucrose or lactose) or larger ________11____ in nature consisting of polymerized glucose ( wood, paper, bread, potatoes, etc)- REQUIREMENTS= Glucose, extra __12_, ADP series of ten ____12____ pathway enzymes.- Location of Glycolysis= _____13______ of cell Product = two pyruvates, 2 NADH, two ___14__ (substrate level synthesis) Significance: all major energy releasing pathways START at the cells cytoplasm with glycolysis, a series of reactions in which glucose is broken down into pyruvate. The Net Energy Yield (of glycolysis is only 2 ATP + 2 NADH per glucose molecule. Pyruvate = raw material, but is “fedinto the second stage→ KREBS CYCLEo KREBS CYCLE: (AKA Citric Acid Cycle, Tricarboxylic acid cycle) Krebs continues oxidation of __15_____, yielding NADHs and FADHs Preparatory Stage: Pyruvate + ___16____ + NAD⁺ → AcetylCoA + NADH +____16____ Requirements: AcetlyCoA (from _____17_______) , oxaloacetate (4-carbon intermediate) ], series of pathway enzymes, OXYGEN (not used directly) ( and can ____17__ the Kreb Cycle)- Location of KREB CYCLE= ____18______ matrix- Used by: any organism which requires oxygen to live Product: CO2, oxaloacetate (regenerated), reduced “energy carriers” or “coenzymes,” NADH & ____19____, 2 ATPS Significance: Pyruvate (from glycolysis) is ___20_____ into the mitochondrion’s matrix, a carbon removed (forming CO2), & 2 remaining carbons bonded to Coenzyme (CoA), to form Acetyl CoA*, another high energy carrier (prep state for citric acid cycle). Acetyl CoA enters the citric cycle only if NAD⁺ is present. The process of decarboxylation releases carbon


View Full Document
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Exam 1 Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Exam 1 Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?