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BU SOC 100B - SOC100B-12Migration

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SOC100BAge of Migration (Course Reading)“Migration, the shadow of globalization”For origin societies, the departure of people raises concern about the “brain drain” on one hand, but also creates hope that money and knowledge migrants gather abroad can foster human and economic developmentFor receiving societies, the settlement of migrant groups and the formation of ethnic minorities can fundamentally change the social, cultural, economic, and political fabric of societiesStrong Republican opposition with regard to immigration reform allowing the legalizationof the approximately 11 million irregular immigrants living in the USAHostility towards immigration sometimes engender racist attacks. 1. In 2011, Anders Breivik accused Labour Party for the destruction of Norwegian culture and the “mass import” of Muslims. The norwegian radical killed 8 people in Oslo and killed another 69 people at a youth camp of the Labour Party in Utoya.USA, with over 11 million irregular immigrants, relies heavily on their labour in agriculture, construction and their services, yet has been unable to move towards legal forms of immigration and employment for this group, even though it also has the largest legal immigration programme in the worldLack of worker’s rights, prohibition of unions and fear of deportation have forced migrantworkers to accept exploitative conditionsYoung people of immigrant background are protesting against their feeling of being excluded from the societies in which they had grown up. In contrast, some say that immigrants are failing to integrate, deliberately maintaining distinct cultures and religions, and have become threats to security and social cohesionAge of mass migration-- between 1846 and 1939, some 59 million people left Europe, mainly to settle in North and South America, Australia, New Zealand, and South AfricaTransnationalism- as people became more mobile, many of them foster social and economic relationships w/ 2 or more societies at once; often seen as undermining the undivided loyalty some observers think crucial to sovereign nation-statesPeople move to burgeoning cities, where employment opportunities are often inadequate and social conditions miserable. Violence, oppressive governments and denial of human rights can lead to forced migrations w/in or across states Newer forms of mobility: - retirement migration- mobility in search of better/different lifestyles- repeated or circular movementImportant to note--- The barrier between migration and tourism becoming blurredDecline in number of refugees after the early 1990s was partly due to a decline in the number of conflicts, and partly due to the states’ unwillingness to admit refugees. The number of internationally displaced persons (IDPs) - forced migrants who remain in theircountry of origin because they find it impossible to cross an international border to seek refuge- grew to about 27.5 million in 2010Migration affects not only the migrants but the sending and receiving societies as a whole.Globalization of migration- tendency for more and more countries to be significantly affected by international migration; more diversityChanging direction of dominant migration flows- Europe went from emigrating to colonize to center of immigrationDifferentiation of immigration- most countries experience many types of migrations at onceProliferation of migration transition- traditional lands of emigration become lands of immigrationFeminization of labour migration- women playing increase role in labour migration; increase in awareness of women’s role in migrationGrowing politicization of migration- domestic politics, bilateral and regional relationships and national security policies of states are increasingly affected by international migrationAs most European Community countries stated to remove their internal boundaries with the signature of the Schengen Agreement in 1985 and full implementation in 1996, they become increasingly concerned about controlling external bordersAdoption of the 1990 convention on the Rights of Migrant Workers and Their Families by UN. Immigration countries refused to sign, and it did not come into force until 2003. By Oct. 2012, it had been ratified by just 46 of the 193 states in the UN.* There is no institution with overall responsibility for global cooperation and for monitoring migrant


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