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BU SOC 100B - SOC100B-10Fordism

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SOC100BCh.8 Modernity- FordismWorker’s skill now less necessary and less important→ workers are disposableFordism - each task depends immediately on the one preceding it; made it easy to disrupt production line; captures factors of modern economy; over time, worker loses value and is less of a consumerMass production began with combination of:1. moving assembly lines2. specialized machinery3. high wages4. low cost of productionStandardization and simplification of product, use ofspecialized tools meant for speed, precision, and reduction of skilled labor. These things vastly increased output.Output, capital stock, and productivity increased much faster than unemployment dueto introduction of machinesTaylorism - main principles are:1. Production can be broken into specialized and discreet tasks 2. Relationship between these various tasks could be logically structured (location arrangement)- Taylorism tried to organize labor around machinery for greater efficiency; seekingrational worker-machine balance, while Fordism tries to replace labor by machinery- Taylorism believed pace of work is set by worker. Fordism implied that machineryset the pace of workFordism and Taylorism combined:1. work simplified2. tasks fragmented3. detailed division of labor4. descaling of labor5. dissatisfaction of workers6. unrest on the shop floor- low skilled workers with higher wages experienced more consumption [Five-dollar day]- framework of industry made feeling of Anomie- cyclical crises and recurrent disruptions in economic production as a result of the time-lags between effective demand and productive investment were a known feature of industrial economiesEconomies:Capitalism- organizing economic life by:a. private ownership of means of productionb. profit as incentive for further investmentc. ‘free” competition for markets to sell goods, acquire cheap raw materials, and use of cheap labord. expansion and investment to accumulate capitalSocialism- where workers are essentially shareholdersStandardization of goods protected consumersHierarchical bureaucratic form of workplaceRegulation of income, demand of welfare1. In west/industrial economies, manufacturing efforts redirected towards information technologies2. In manufacturing industries everywhere, flexible specialization, just-in-time production, and Toyotism were adopted3. Flight of capital to non-western nations through offshoring and outsourcing [post-Fordism]Developed economies of 3rd world countries and rebuilding of economies of other western countries challenge U.S economic dominationFall of Fordism-- too much inventory build-up, frequent strikesFlexible workforce-- casualization of job; may be hired today but fired next weekMNC (multinational corporations)-- labor not organized such that they have bargaining power; not as much investment in information technology; prefer hiring young women because they have better hand-eye coordination, more nimble fingers, and are more compliant and still replaceableOIDL- industrialization in metropolitan center, raw materials from 3rd worldNIDL(New International Division of Labor)- production of goods in 3rd world, consumption in the WestThe “Race to the bottom”- of who can offer the cheapest labor?Services are less able to generate high productivity gains. They are dependent upon thedynamism of industry and grow in response to manufacturing growth.It is more difficult to pin down exactly what it is, how it is produced, and what measure ofproductivity and output is best. In some cases, for example in health care, education, entertainment, and a range of personal services, the output is essentially intangible.- The core of industry is


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