New version page

NIU GEOL 120 - Minerals: Building Blocks of the Earth

Type: Lecture Note
Pages: 4

This preview shows page 1 out of 4 pages.

View Full Document
View Full Document

End of preview. Want to read all 4 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a GradeBuddy member to access this document.

View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

GEOL 120 1st Edition Lecture 5 Outline of Last Lecture I. Plate Tectonic TheoryII. What is a Tectonic Plate?III. How are plates distributedTypes of continental MarginsIV. Lithospheric StructureV. Plate BoundariesVI. Subduction ZonesVII. Subduction zones Earthquakes VIII. Transform Plate BoundariesIX. Hot SpotsX. What makes plates move?Outline of Current Lecture I. Minerals are the building block of rocksII. mineral drive some economicsIII. mineral products define some historical agesIV. Mineral CharacteristicsV. What is crystallineVI. Crystals VII. Interfacial angleVIII. Crystal Lattice (3D)IX. Chemical bonding & crystalsX. PolymorphXI. Crystal Growth XII. Growth ProcessXIII. Mineral properties colorXIV. SilicatesCurrent LectureI. Minerals are the building block of rocksa. the building blocks of earthb. more than 4,000 minerals have been identifiedi. new minerals are discovered every yearII. mineral drive some economicsa. sulfide minerals responsible for depositsi. precious metals1. copper, silver, goldThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.ii. industrial metal1. galena for lead a. found in batteriesIII. mineral products define some historical agesa. bronze age (3600-1100 BC) in Europeb. iron age (1200 BC- 400 AD) in Europei. widespread use of iron to make steelIV. Mineral Characteristicsa. Naturally occurringb. Inorganic slidi. a few exceptions herec. Do not contain carbond. Definable chemical compositioni. varies within limitsii. graphite and diamond= C1. Do have Carbon but inorganiciii. orderly arrangement of atoms1. crystalline2. glass is not a mineraliv. formed by natural processes1. geological and biological V. What is crystallinea. materials with an orderly arrangement of atomsi. crystal structure defined by this arrangement1. grow in unique consistent shapes a. crystal facesb. symmetryVI. Crystalsa. uninterrupted piece of crystalline solidi. Have crystal faces (typically)b. Shape is naturali. not cut and polished1. although they look that wayii. wide variety of shapes1. cube 2. hexagonal prism3. double tetrahedron4. Trapezoidaliii. shape can be a clue for identification VII. Interfacial anglea. to adjacent crystal facesVIII. Crystal Lattice (3D)a. repeated throughout the crystal b. controls most mineral propertiesc. crystal shaped. symmetryIX. Chemical bonding & crystalsa. covalent (strongest)i. election sharingb. Ionic (Moderate) electron Transferc. hydrogen (weak)d. van der waal’s (weak)i. electrostatic polar attractionX. Polymorpha. minerals with the same compositioni. different structureii. Ex:1. Diamond & Graphite are pure carbon2. all diamond bonds are covalent3. graphite forms sheetsa. covalent bond within sheetsXI. Crystal Growth a. grow as atoms attach to mineral surfacesb. begins from a antral seed crystalc. expands outward as atoms accumulate d. outward growth fills available spacee. shape is governed by available spacei. open space= well defined facesii. confined space= no crystal facesXII. Growth Processa. solidification from meltXIII. Mineral properties colora. color results from light waves not absorbed by the mineralb. streakc. hardnessd. Lusteri. 2 primary subdivision1. metallic (looks like metal)2. non-metallica. vitreous (glassy)b. Earthy (dull)e. Specific gravity1. Ratio of sample density to water densityii. Crystal Habit1. the shape of a crystal with well formed crystal faces2. depends on the internal arrangement of atoms in crystal latticef. Mineral cleavage i. how a mineral breaks1. break along a planea. weakness build in the lattice2. flat surface breaka. not a crystal facei. not naturally occurringg. Mineral Fracturei. some mineral lacks planes of lattice weaknessXIV. Silicatesa. 95% of continental crustb. rock forming


View Full Document
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Minerals: Building Blocks of the Earth and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Minerals: Building Blocks of the Earth and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?