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OU GEOG 1114 - Equivalence

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GEOG 1114 1stEdition Lecture 5Outline of Last Lecture Introduction to Maps: The tools of Geography -Maps: Purpose? Types? Limitations? Characteristics:-Map Scale - Map Generalization-Map projections Outline of Current LectureIntroduction to Maps: The tools of GeographyMapsContinued:-Map Distortion -Three Major Types of Map Projections -Isolines-Map Design Elements Geotechniques-provide effective data a. Cartographyb. Remote Sensingc. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Current Lecture -There are two primary types of map distortionEach map projection involves some changes in direction, area, and/or shapes. These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.Distortion: Equivalence and Conformity Equivalence- maintain equal areaConformity- maintains equal shapes. The shape of locations on the map is the same as on the Earth Equivalence VS. Conformity:Conformal: Shapes are correct; size is distortedEquivalent: Maintain equal area; the shape is distorted (*Neither is 100% correct because it is a 2D image trying to depict a 3D area)BUT depending on your purpose one projection will be more suited to your needs THREE Major Types of Map Projections1. Mercator (MOST FAMOUS) Cylindrical projections. Wrap the globe in a cylinder of paper tangent to the earth at the equator. There is a conformal projection.2. Azimuthal (Plane Projection) Project the globe onto a paper that is tangent to the globe at some point. It displays on the area well as an equivalent projection3. Conic- The map is projected onto the cone tangent to or intersecting the globe. Longitudes are the straight lines; Latitudes are the parallel lines. This is used for mapping small areas on Earth. (Used for weather maps) Isolines-very effective way to understand the climate of an area - Important cartographic device for portraying the spatial distribution of data - Line that joins points of equal value of something:-Isotherm Line of constant temperature-Isobar line of constant pressure-Isohyet Line of constant rain -Isorithm Line connecting points of equal population density -Contour Lines- elevation, topographic map Topographic Maps: -Show elevation contours-Lines of equal elevation*The closer the lines are together the steeper the terrain is on that map The Global Positioning System: GPS- Global Satellite system for determining your location on the Earth’s surfaceGPS FACTS: -GPS receivers use at least 3 satellites to calculate a 2D position (latitude and longitude) and track movement with 3-15 meter accuracy-With 4 or more satellites you can get altitude-Can calculate speed, distance, sunrise, and more Map Design Elements- Cartographic Visualization you need to make it so your viewer can gather plenty of information and knowledge from the mapThis includes: TitleDateLegendScaleDirectionSourceProjectionArtistic Elements: Color, figure/ground, line size and weight, font, etc. Geotechniques- all provide effective data for science of geography a. Cartography: The art and science of mapping You can work manually, with a computer, and with scientific visualizationb. Remote Sensing: the science and art of obtaining information about an object using an instrument not in contact with the object. EX: aerial photography, satelliteimages, sonar, and radar-Aerial photos-Orthophoto maps-Visible light and infrared (IR) scanning-Thermal IR scanning -Radar and sonar *We get updated weather information every 7 second c. Geographic Information Systems (GIS): Automated systems for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis, and display of spatial


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