VCU ARTH 103 - Final Exam Study Guide (4 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


Exam 4/Final Exam

Study Guide
Virginia Commonwealth University
Arth 103 - Survey of Western Art
Survey of Western Art Documents
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ARTH 103 1st Edition Exam 4 Study Guide Romanesque Terms Romanesque a relatively calm safe period with an international art style and no homeland or distinct starting event 1050 1200 11th and 12th centuries middle of the middle ages Romanesque architecture dense heavy castle look due to lack of engineering knowledge with much stonework unlike gothic cathedrals an attempt to mimic Roman architecture although Romanesque might not have been the name for it during the actual time period Pilgrimage a spiritual journey to a holy site geared around many churches were built to house these pilgrimages and relics Santiago de Campostella dedicated to St James the Great it was a destination of a major pilgrimage route marked by many churches in Spain c 1078 1122 with later renovations taking this route earned you an indulgence less time in purgatory Reliquary statue of St Faith gold repousse in France late 9th century Relic an object somehow connected to a spiritual religious figure bones clothing anything held in a reliquary Repousse Hammered metalwork from the reverse side Normans north man nomadic viking spread Romanesque art and architecture patrons from Normandy France militaristic and feared by others William the Conqueror Duke of Normandy c 1028 1087 he was the younger of two sons that was screwed over when his father died so he desired and conquered Europe Battle of Hastings Oct 14 1066 King Harold is killed William conquers England and becomes the first English king Guild a group of craftsmen who have come together to control their trade setting expectations for a particular craft traded and ways to protect your craft this was pre 1800 s version of art school Parts of a cathedral plan Nave a long hall running down the middle of a medieval cathedral Ambulatory space around the nave for walking Transept crossed the nave and this intersection was called a crossing Choir nave behind the crossing for priests etc Chapels Indicated a pilgrimage church little boxed rooms where relics were held ambulatories led to chapels for uninterrupted pilgrimage visits to relics Clerestory top arches Nave arcade a series of arches Triforium gallery arches on the second story Nave elevation collectively a clerestory nave arcade and triforium gallery Groin vault intersection of two barrel vaults makes up interior all the way through Barrel vault arch ribs Parts of a Romanesque portal Portal door to cathedral the space for Romanesque sculpture Jambs on either side of opening Trumeau post in middle of the opening Lintel intersects trumeau above horizontally Tympanum half circle bordered by archivolts which are each composed of individual stones called voussoirs Cloister outdoor meditating area for monks at the monestary Clunic order a monastic order celebrating scholarly monks with illuminated manuscripts a wealthy order had a reputation for intellectual and wealthy characteristics Crusade attempt to recapture the holy land from Islamic forces allowed a violent European society to let of steam the violent people got killed of Pope Urban II 1st crusade 1096 1099 Romanesque Images Bishop Odo Blessing the Feast sections of the Bayeux Tapestry England France c 1066 1082 linen with wool embroidery guilds A commemorative banner showing William the Conqueror conquering Europe and the guild system was made by many even though there is a single standard held Saint Etienne in Caen France begun 1067 Norman Romanesque cathedral commissioned by William the Conqueror a perfect example of Romanesque architecture a basilica church with large front towers a nave two ambulatories a transept a crossing a choir and chapels The interior of Saint Etienne had no chairs A clerestory nave arcade and triforium gallery collectively a nave elevation there was an attempt at a harmonious 3 element for logic clarity s sake there were groin vaults barrel vaults arches and ribs holding up the ceilings Portal Moissac Abbey 12th century had a scalloped trumaue the sculptures don t look like real people so the creators were thought to be uneducated Sculpture was considered architectural decoration meant to fit the trumaeu Gislebertus the sculptor The Last Judgement Saint Lazare Autun France c 1120 1140 with a scalloped shell It was not typical to know an artist of a particular work during medieval period so Gislebertus was significant for signing his work This sculpture was thought to be encouragement for pilgrims on a pilgrimage motivating them for eternal salvation Other worldly depictions

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