TAMU PSYC 320 - Final Exam Study Guide (7 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide



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Final Exam Study Guide

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Pages:
7
Type:
Study Guide
School:
Texas A&M University
Course:
Psyc 320 - Sensation-Perception
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Psych 320 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide Exam 3 Definitions Ch 7 Figures You Need To Know 7 1 7 2 7 4 7 5 7 6 7 7 7 8 7 9 7 21 7 22 7 24 7 25 Ecological approach to perception Focuses on studying moving observers and on determine how their movement creates perpetual information that both guides further movement and helps observers perceive the environment Kinetic depth effect refers to the phenomenon whereby the three dimensional structural form of an object can be perceived when the object is moving Optic flow Information about how rapidly we are moving and where we are headed Focus of expansion The absence of flow at the destination point Gradient of flow The different speed flow fast near the observer and slower farther away Invariant information Information that remains constant even when the observer is moving Mirror neurons Neurons that respond both when a monkey observes someone else grabbing an object Premotor mirror area Fig 7 7 Affordance Information that indicates what an object is used for Parietal reach region The area within the monkey and human parietal cortex that are used to reach for things Ch 8 Figures You Need To Know 8 5 8 6 8 7 8 9 8 16 8 17 8 24 8 25 8 28 Apparent motion an Optical illusion of motion produced by viewing a rapid succession of still pictures of a moving object Induced motion an illusion of visual perception in which a stationary or a moving object appears to move or to move differently because of other moving objects nearby in the visual field Motion aftereffect MAE is a visual illusion experienced after viewing a moving visual stimulus for a time tens of milliseconds to minutes with stationary eyes and then fixating a stationary stimulus The stationary stimulus appears to move in the opposite direction to the original physically moving stimulus The motion aftereffect is believed to be the result of motion adaptation waterfall illusion When you look at a waterfall for 30 to 60 seconds and then look off to the sided at part of the scene that is stationary you will see everything you are looking at move up for a few seconds point light walker Small lights are placed on the joints of a person while they are carrying out actions Biological motion A self produced motion that happens when a person is walking such swinging the arms the flattened arc of the foot TMS transcranial magnetic stimulation Ch 10 Fig 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 10 12 10 13 10 14 10 15 10 16 10 17 10 21 10 28 10 29 10 33 10 34 10 35 10 36 10 41 10 42 10 4310 44 Cue approach to depth perception Identifying information in the retinal image that is correlated with depth in the scene monocular cues Cues that work with one eye pictorial cues Sources of depth information that can be depicted in a picture occlusion A cue that one object is in front of another relative height Objects with their bases closer to the horizon are usually seen as being more distant Meaning higher in the field of view causes objects on the ground to appear farther away whereas lower in the field of view causes objects in the sky to appear farther away relative size When two objects are of equal size the one that is farther away will take up less of your field of view than the other that is closer familiar size When we judge distance based on our prior knowledge of the sizes of objects perspective convergence When you look down parallel object and it appears to converge in the distance atmospheric perspective When distant objects appears less sharp then nearer objects and often have a slight blue tint texture gradient Elements that are equally spaced in a scene appear to be more closely packed as distance increases as in the scenes motion parallax During movement nearby objects appear to glide rapidly past us but more distant objects appear to move more slowly binocular disparity The differences on the images on the left and right retinas disparity selective cells Binocular disparity that provide information for the positions of the objects in space that implies that there should be neurons that signal different amounts of disparity stereoscope A device used to produce a convincing illusion of depth by using two slightly different picture random dot stereograms Patterns constructed by first generating two identical random dot patterns on a computer and then shifting a square shaped section of the dots one or more units to the side visual angle The angle of an object relative to the observer s eye size constancy The fact that our perception of an object s size is relatively constant even when we view the object from different distances Emmert s law The farther away an afterimage appears the larger it will seem Visual illusions Muller lyer illusion The one of two vertical lines appear longer than the other even though they are both identical Ponzo illusion Two images are placed together and one appears longer even though they are identical Ames room Causes two people of equal size to appear very different in size Ch 11 Figures That You Need To Know 11 2 11 3 11 4 11 5 11 6 11 7 11 8 11 10 11 11 11 15 11 16 11 18 11 19 11 20 11 21 11 22 11 23 11 24 11 26 11 28 11 31 11 30 11 32 pure tone Occurs when changes in air pressure occur in a pattern described by a mathematical function amplitude The size of the pressure change frequency The number of cycles per second that the pressure changes repeat Hertz The number of cycles per second that the change in pressure repeats Timbre The quality that distinguishes between two tones that have the same loudness pitch and duration but still sound Loudness The perceptual quality most closely related to the level or amplitude of an auditory stimulus Decibel A unit of sound which converts large range of sound patterns into a more manageable scale Pitch The perceptual quality we describe as high or low the property of auditory sensation in terms of which sounds may be ordered on a musical scale Eardrum At the end of the canal that helps keep this membrane and the structures in the middle ear at a relatively constant temperature Cochlea The main structure in the inner ear filled with liquid basilar membrane tectorial membrane Plays crucial roles in activating the hair cells hair cell Receptors for hearing Phase locking The property of firing at the same place in the sound stimulus Octave The intervals between letters when playing an instrument frequency spectrum A way to represent the harmonic components of a complex tone Bekesy s place theory our perception of sound


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