UMass Amherst PSYCH 355 - Midterm Exam Study Guide (5 pages)

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Midterm Exam Study Guide



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Midterm Exam Study Guide

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Pages:
5
School:
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Course:
Psych 355 - Adolescent Psych
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Midterm Exam Study Guide 1 How are contemporary transactional models of development different from previous static linear and transformational models Transactional models reciprocal determinism environment continuously interacts with genetic expression during development active person and environment Transformational models people are always developing no matter what the environment is doing development in a step wise fashion active person passive environment Linear models people are born blank slates acquire experiences over time environment directs development and trains individuals how to behave passive person active environment Static models kids are miniature adults benign environment imprints experiences on individuals passive person and environment 2 What is Bronfenbrenner s Theory of Social Ecology and what did he mean when he said people inhabit nested systems Similar to a russian doll adolescents are surrounded by a variety of systems o Microsystem immediate physical setting peers school family o Mesosystem interactions between major Microsystems school and home o Exosystem encompasses surrounds meso Microsystems churches state o Macrosystem institutional or cultural patterns that establish the principles that govern the behavior of people and organizations beliefs philosophies 3 4 What kinds of physiological changes take place during puberty What are the ways in which adolescents bodies change Development of primary sex organs and secondary pubic facial hair sexual characteristics Increased endocrine activity particularly in the HPA and HPG axes hypothalamus pituitary adrenal kidneys gonad Physical growth and body composition changes height weight muscle and fat distribution Increases in strength and physical endurance due to growth in cardiovascular and pulmonary systems What is the difference between organizational and activational hormones Activational initiate puberty stimulate changes in appearance growth o Leptin Kisspeptin signals body to begin puberty Organizational direct organize development of neurological and anatomical structures 5 What parts of the Central Nervous System and body regulate and secret hormones The Hypothalamus regulates the pituitary master gland which controls hormone levels in the body Pubertal changes begin when the hypothalamus begins synthesizing LHRH 6 How does the timing of the onset of puberty effect girls and boys differently Early maturation in girls is associated with age 10 o Poorer body image dieting problem behavior for girls o Girls more likely to hang out with older more deviant peers bear children earlier more often less educational occupational attainments Early maturation in boys is associated with age 12 o Positive attribute associated with advantageous personality traits o More likely to hang out with older teens antisocial behavior Late maturation in boys is associated with negative self evaluation o When late maturers catch up they become more socially and intellectually competent 7 What did Piaget theorize about how adolescents are cognitively different than children Cognitive development proceeds through four stages Sensorimotor stage occurs during first years of life an infant s intelligence is not in his or her mind but in his or her motor schemes actions 2 Preoperational stage preschool years development of symbolic schemes 3 Concrete operational thought elementary school years children begin to develop the capacity to use their mind to solve real problems not abstract 4 Logical formal operational thought age 12 14 cognitive capacity to manipulate abstract ideas without concrete manifestations of that idea Progression and regression in development no cross domain generality in cognitive development different thinking present in different domains environments 1 8 What are the ways in which adolescents process information differently than children Improvements in working memory storage capacity Improvements in shifting from short term to long term memory Cognitive processing abilities develop improve o Attention o Perception attach meaning to particular stimuli o Processing speed Move from inductive reasoning infer from observation to deductive competence use logic to generate correct conclusions Adolescents place more emphasis on gain adults place emphasis on loss Reflect on thinking more metacognition o Knowledge about awareness of one s own thinking o Ability to regulate or exercise control over one s cognition Become less egocentric Adolescents developing formal operational thought are more dogmatic and skeptical truth is variable and dependent on perspective Adolescents level of intelligence doesn t change although their knowledge and information processing does Few gender differences boys have better spatial skills 9 What are some ways in which the brain changes during adolescence Changes occur in the prefrontal cortex and connections between that and other parts of the brain effects development of cognitive capacities better memory Integration of cognition with emotion and behavior Three processes o Pruning unused neurons are pruned away primarily excitatory o Myelinization speeds neural transmission o Frontal lobe development gradual 10 How is the period of adolescence today different from how it was 100 or 150 years ago In the past children were considered to be mini adults Child labor laws Compulsory education children must be dependents long enough to complete an education Juvenile Justice System defines legal status and rights of minors Adolescence as a social construction as much as it is a psychological stage Secular drift menarche is occurring earlier in developing countries Staying in school longer puberty earlier adolescence is a longer period 11 What are some important cultural issues that occur during adolescence Cultural experience plays a role in how an individual construes the self o Some culture groups emphasize interdependence we emphasize independence False uniqueness effect underestimating the extent to which others posses one s traits Culture and motivation success in terms of money familial goals Ethnic populations consist of a variety of different ethnic groups Neighborhoods and communities influence development o SES ethnic diversity immigrant concentration residential stability o SES correlated with academic achievement emotional behavioral outcomes teen non marital pregnancy o More resources positive effect on development o Negative effects augmented by family stress weakens


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