UMass Amherst PSYCH 355 - Final Exam Study Guide (6 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide



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Final Exam Study Guide

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Pages:
6
School:
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Course:
Psych 355 - Adolescent Psych
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Final Exam Study Guide Adolescent Psychology 2013 Remember that the Final Exam has a cumulative aspect and includes about 20 questions from the Mid term So be sure to review the previous study guide The topics below address the new material we ve covered since the Mid term 1 Be prepared for questions about autonomy the different types of autonomy and the development of autonomy in adolescence Autonomy requires closeness to family members while still developing individuality Boys are accorded autonomy earlier than girls early autonomy more prevalent in the dominant culture whites vs Asians Latinos One of the first steps of developing autonomy devaluation of parents rely on them less for emotional validation Children develop through a variety of stages in psychosexual development o Infantile experience sexual stimulation through various body parts concludes w Oedipal complex o Latency psychosexual quiet o Genital at the onset of puberty o Early theory in order to be free from oedipal attachments adolescents must detach from their parents to eliminate emotional dependence creates irrational behavior healthy adolescents do not detach from their parents Different types of autonomy Emotional autonomy individuating o Development is a gradual process unfolding over entire course of adolescence Behavioral autonomy capacity to take initiative without relying on parents for guidance o Decision making competencies depend on Social setting in which decisions are presented Type of decision nature of the issue Expression of authority exercised by others Effects of family dynamics parent child relationship Value autonomy moral reasoning 2 Review the development of moral reasoning Piaget s Stages of Moral development 1 Heteronomous mortality a Rules are sacred and cannot be violated focus on consequences of an action 2 Autonomous morality preadolescence a Children gain social world experience disequilibrium autonomous morality b Rules vary from one context to the other person s intentions are important Kohlberg s Stages of Moral development Preconventional moral thinking guided by self interest 1 Children are obedient they want to avoid punishment 2 Children are obedient they want to earn praise rewards Conventional 1 Adolescents focus on being good and doing what is expected of them 2 Adolescents guided by the rule of law in fulfilling obligations rare to see this type of reasoning used consistently Postconventional 1 Adolescents perceive compliance with rules and laws as a social contract 2 Behave according to higher ethical principles 3 Antisocial behavior less mature moral reasoning more aggressive Mature moral reasoning more socially competent Abstract thought process leads to engagement in political activity Be familiar with all facets of peer relationships including friendship cliques and crowds and how they influence adolescents What gender differences are there in male and female adolescent friendships and what is relational aggression What are the affects of popularity and unpopularity on adolescents Two types of social relationships o Vertical with older individuals involves submission o Horizontal peers of equal social power reciprocal relationships Secure attachment to parents more socially competent healthier peer relationships Childhood friendships are same sex this changes during adolescence As children enter adolescence friends shift from sharing activities to sharing thoughts secrets ambitions Types of unpopular kids o Neglected don t receive much attention not necessarily disliked o Rejected disruptive and aggressive children disliked by peers can be shy as well Fewer friendship options less opportunity for social skill development o Controversial admired but not liked often bullies o Unpopular children low self esteem lack of confidence submissive anxious depressed negative consequences for mental health and psychological development develop problems leading to further rejection victimization can lead to lower educational detainment creating less of a salary for adulthood o Popular children benefits of being popular outweigh the costs higher self esteem but more exposed to drugs and alcohol Different types of peer relationships o Dyadic primarily friendships can be bully victim pairs Short lived especially early on o Small groups of peers cliques no adult supervision bands of kids who group together can be prosocial engagement or antisocial gang behavior Adolescents remain in contact w kids who have similar values o Crowds groupings of adolescents who are not necessarily personally connected but project a similar image reputation sports team Typically more stable serves as a reference group Determined by reputation and stereotype rather by friends social interactions basis for cliques Enables adolescents to do social comparison can improve or degrade self esteem adolescents in high status crowds have higher self esteem Peer relationships are o Vital to adaptive psychological functioning o Unstable mutable can change over the course of months Boys associate in larger groups more likely to be involved in organized sports o More aggressive competitive o How they talk to each other emphasizes power control Girls are more affiliative engage in collaborative disclosure o Friendships in more intimate terms o Aggression is more social relational rather than physical o Girls can be just as aggressive as boys but in different ways Relational aggression acts intended to harm another through manipulation of his or her relationships with others as in malicious gossip girls more than guys 4 What is youth culture and what are the essential elements of youth culture Image dress hairstyle jewelry Slang argot language Demeanor gestures posture Youth culture adolescents constitute a sub culture with it s own unique characteristics elements within that change based on the era Advances in youth culture parallels technological advances o Pre figurative adolescents know more than adults shifting towards this society o Cofigurative societies in which technological change is so rapid that elder generation skills are obsolete adolescents learn from other young people as they do from others Post figurative adolescents more dependent on adults for information they need to know to be productive members of society Themes accentuating youth culture o Clothing appearance o Automobiles cell phones o Music rave attendance o 5 Be familiar with the stages of deepening adolescent intimacy and love relationships


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