New version page

CU-Boulder PSYC 4684 - Lecture

Upgrade to remove ads
Upgrade to remove ads
Unformatted text preview:

1Jean Lamarck (1744-1829)Lamarck waswrong aboutgiraffes…Theory ofinheritance ofacquiredcharacteristics…but mayberight aboutpeoplelook!a cowthrough languageand cultureComponents of LanguagePhonemes - basic unit of sound Phonological Development:learning about thesoundsystem of a languageMorphemes - smallest unit of meaningful soundSemantic Development:learningabout expressingmeaningSyntax - rules for combining wordsSyntactic Development:learning rules forcombiningwordsPragmatics - rules of conversationPragmaticDevelopment:learninghow languageis used2The case of word learning…• Children generally speak their first wordbefore they turn 1.• 18 months ~ 75 words.• 2 years ~ 250 words.• 5 years ~ 10,000 wordsThe “gavagai” problem(Quine, 1969):Gavagai!“Gavagai”?3“Gavagai”?Ears?Tail?Fur?Soft?Brown?Mouth eating leaf?Rabbit?Grass?“Rabbit essence?”Or is it- smell (n.)?- smell (v.)?- yellow?- soft? etc., etc.“Flower!”a.k.a. The “indeterminacy” problem.Different theories have differentanswers.How do young children learnto name objects?Nativist (innate knowledge of language)Chomsky, Pinker•Universal grammar - unconscious rules common to all languages.•Modularity hypothesis - the human brain contains an innate, self-contained language module.•Evidence:All children exposed to language learn language; other animalsdo not.Specific brain structures linked to specific language abilities.Children imposing grammatical structure onto simple languagesystem•Problems:Universal grammarFocus is on syntactic development; ignores communicative roleof language.4Nativists on learning words• Syntactic bootstrapping - The child comes to the task oflearning language with knowledge about syntactic kinds(e.g. noun, verb). These are used to constrain possiblemeanings.“This is a daxy one”,“Big Bird is gorping Cookie Monster”• Various Biases and constraints - The child knowssomething about how words map to meaning.–Whole-object constraint (Golinkof et al)–Taxonomic constraint (Waxman et al)–Mutual exclusivity principle (Markman)–Object (shape) and substance (material) biases(Smith et al, Soja et al)Interactionist (communicative functions of Language)Lois Bloom, Tomasello•Language is a social skill.•Children are motivated to interact and communicate.•Evidence:• Infants mostly use language to communicate with other people.• Infants’/children’s sensitivity to pragmatic cues.• Non-language-specific phoneme perception.• Infants and young children accept nonverbal sounds andgestures as labels for objects.•Problem: Nativists believe that sheer focus can not teach complexgrammar. Focuses on semantic development.Interactionists on learning words• Pragmatic cues (Tomasello, Baldwin)– Social context– Joint Attention: both parties engaged in acommunicative act, attend to the same thing (mindreading)– Intentionality: how is the word used?– Linguistic context: how does it appear in a sentence?– Syntactic bootstrapping: use the whole sentence tofigure out the meaning of the word“oops!”ConnectionistMcClelland, Elman•Language develops from strengthening neural connections inresponse to input.•Language learning results from general-purpose mechanisms.•Evidence: Infants can identify structural features of language. General-purpose connectionist models can explainoverregularization, overextensions, etc.•Problems: Most aspects of language have not been modeled yet. Built-in features and assumptions of models.5Connectionists on learning words• General purpose mechanisms - Memory, attention,associative learning.• Structured environment - General purpose mechanismslearning in a structured environment create biased learners,make word learning more

View Full Document
Download Lecture
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...

Join to view Lecture and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Lecture 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.


By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?