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CompSci 100E29.1From bits to bytes to intsÿ At some level everything is stored as either a zero or a one A bit is a binary digit a byte is a binaryterm (8 bits) We should be grateful we can deal with Strings rather than sequences of 0's and 1's. We should be grateful we can deal with an int rather than the 32 bits that make an intÿ int values are stored as two's complement numbers with 32 bits, for 64 bits use the type long, a char is 16 bits Standard in Java, different in C/C++ Facilitates addition/subtraction for int values We don't need to worry about this, except to note:o Infinity + 1 = - Infinityo Math.abs(-Infinity) > InfinityCompSci 100E29.2How are data stored?ÿ To facilitate compression coding we need to manipulate individual bits Why do we need to read one bit? Why do we need to write one bit? When do we read 8 bits at a time? Read 32 bits at a time?ÿ We can't actually write one bit-at-a-time. We can't really write one char at a time either. Output and input are buffered, minimize memory accesses and disk accesses Why do we care about this when we talk about data structures and algorithms?o Where does data come from?CompSci 100E29.3How do we buffer char output?ÿ Done for us as part of InputStream and Reader classes InputStreams are for reading bytes Readers are for reading char values Why do we have both and how do they interact?Reader r = new InputStreamReader(System.in); Do we need to flush our buffers?ÿ In the past Java IO has been notoriously slow Do we care about I? About O? This is changing, and the java.nio classes helpo Map a file to a region in memory in one operationCompSci 100E29.4Buffer bit outputÿ To buffer bit output we need to store bits in a buffer When the buffer is full, we write it. The buffer might overflow, e.g., in process of writing 10 bits to 32-bit capacity buffer that has 29 bits in it How do we access bits, add to buffer, etc.?ÿ We need to use bit operations Mask bits -- access individual bits Shift bits – to the left or to the right Bitwise and/or/negate bitsCompSci 100E29.5Bit Logical Operationsÿ Work on integers types in binary (by bit) longs, ints, chars, and bytesÿ Three binary operators And: & Or: | Exclusive Or (xor): ^ÿ What is result of 27 & 14? 27 | 14? 27 ^ 14?01111110011101000000a^ba|ba&bbaCompSci 100E29.6Bit Logical Operationsÿ Need to work bit position by bit position11011 = 27 (many leading zeros not shown)01110 = 14-----------& 01010 =| 11111 =^ 10101 =ÿ Also have unary negation (not): ~00000000000000000000000000011011 = 27~ 11111111111111111111111111100100 = -26ÿ Use “masks” with the various operators to Set or clear bits Test bits Toggle bitsÿ (Example later)CompSci 100E29.7Bit Shift Operationsÿ Work on same types as logical opsÿ One left shift and two right shifts Left shift: <<11011 = 2727 << 21101100 = 108 (shifting left is like? ) Logical right shift: >>>11011 = 2727 >>> 2110=6 (shifting right is like? ) Arithmetic right shift: >>11111111111111111111111111100100 = -26-26 >> 211111111111111111111111111111001 = -711111111111111111111111111111111 = -1-1 >>> 16 (for contrast)00000000000000001111111111111111 = 65575CompSci 100E29.8Representing pixelsÿ A pixel typically stores RGB and alpha/transparency values Each RGB is a value in the range 0 to 255 The alpha value is also in range 0 to 255Pixel red = new Pixel(255,0,0,0);Pixel white = new Pixel(255,255,255,0);ÿ Typically store these values as int values, a picture is simply an array of int valuesvoid process(int pixel){int blue = pixel & 0xff;int green = (pixel >> 8) & 0xff;int red = (pixel >> 16) & 0xff;}CompSci 100E29.9Bit masks and shiftsvoid process(int pixel){int blue = pixel & 0xff;int green = (pixel >> 8) & 0xff;int red = (pixel >> 16) & 0xff;}ÿ Hexadecimal number: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,a,b,c,d,e,f Note that f is 15, in binary this is 1111, one less than 10000 The hex number 0xff is an 8 bit number, all onesÿ The bitwise & operator creates an 8 bit value, 0—255 (why) 1&1 == 1, otherwise we get 0, similar to logical and Similarly we have |, bitwise orCompSci 100E29.10Swap two ints “in place”ÿ Swap contents of two int variables without requiring extra memoryÿ Still requires three statements (same time on most machines)ÿ ReplaceVoid swap(int[] a, int j, int k){int temp = a[j];a[j] = a[k];a[k] = temp;}WithVoid swap(int[] a, int j, int k){a[j] = a[j] ^ a[k];a[k] = a[j] ^ a[k];a[j] = a[j] ^ a[k];}ÿ Works because x^x=0,x^0=x Proof left to the student. . . Once was useful; now more of a curiosityCompSci 100E29.11Mary Shawÿ

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