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In plant and animal cells, the direction of water transport across cell membranes can always be predicted by:
area of less negative ψ to area of more negative ψ
Leaf transportation drives water transport from roots to shoots in the xylem by creating a gradient of:
ψs that is more negative in shoots than in roots  ψp that is more negative in shoots and roots 
In plant roots, the casparian strip
ensures that water and solutes must pass through a living cell
In a small population of alpine foxes, you observe increased ear length over a 10-year period. Can you conclude that increase in ear length is advantageous in this population?
Many different plant species do C4 photosynthesis. The strongest evidence that this is homoplasy due to convergent evolution is that
C4 species exist that are more closely related to C3 species than other C4 species 
According to the syllabus how are you supposed to go about the assigned reading?
use your notes as a guide for detailed reading of concepts after class 
Approximately how far back does the fossil record extend?
3.5 bya
Some functions of a plasma membrane proton pump
stores potential energy on one side of the membrane  generates membrane potential  hydrolyzes ATP produces a proton gradient
Land plants are most closely related to
1. Cambrian "explosion" 2. Cretaceous mass extinction 3. Evolution of animals 4. Evolution of land plants 5. evolution of photosynthesis
Some population of S. aureus have evolved resistance to antibiotics. What would you predict would happen if antibiotic uses were stopped?
the frequency of non-resistant forms will increase in these populations 
A plant cell with ψs of -1.2 is put into a large beaker of solution with a ψs of -0.8. When the net flow of water stops the cell all have a final ψs=? ψp=? and ψ=?
ψs=-1.2 ψp=+0.4 ψ=-0.8
One of you research assistants accidentally mixed some heavy metals into a media mixture that was added to one of your lab cultures of single cells. The membranes of these cells are almost- but not completely- impermeable to these ions, which are slightly toxic to your cells. You are tryi…
the biggest cells will survive the longest 
The apoplast includes
the interior vessel element the cell wall of a root hair  the cell wall of a stomatal guard cell  extracellular air spaces inside leaves
Apical meristems, or growing tips, can form new cells capable of photosynthesis in
A clade or monophyletic group is defined as:
a common ancestor and all descendants 
The RNA hypothesis for the origin of life is supported by
RNA can self replicate RNA can spontaneously form simpler organic molecules RNA can contain genetic information RNA can carry out enzyme-like catalytic functions 
A controlled experiment is one in which
there are at least 2 groups, one of which does not receive treatment 
In a salt marsh in coastal GA, there is a plant with cell conditions of ψs=-1.5, ψp=+0.5, and ψ=-1.0. What value of soil ψ would make it possible for the plant to take up water from the soil?
less negative than -1.0
In phloem
flow goes from sugar source to sugar sink cells flow goes from region of more positive ψp to less positive ψp it is made up of parenchyma cells with no secondary cell walls  it transports primarily a solution of sugar
Why is the transport process in the xylem bulk flow and not osmosis?
there are no cell membranes being crossed 
How does a scientific theory differ from a scientific hypothesis?
a theory is an explanation for a general phenomenon; hypotheses treat more specific observations 
What is a hypothesis?
a tentative explanation that can be tested and falsified
When cells increase in size
their volume increases  their SA increases  their SA/V ratio sets their upper size limit  ther SA increases more slowly than their volume
Evolution has occurred when
generations of a population differ in allele frequencies 
The finches studied by the Grants and their students in the galapagos experience severe drought in 1976. When they returned early in 1978 they found that the finch population had been decimated, only 1 finch born in 1976 had survived to year 3 and no new finches hatched in year 2. Based o…
natural selection
Best description of secondary transport
It is a form of active transport because it requires ATP to move molecules passively through a channel 
The closest relatives of the ferns are
gymnosperms and angiosperms 
In order to survive in dry soils with very negative water potentials, a plant could:
1. Osmotically adjust to increase ψ gradient for water uptake from soil 2. increase root growth to access additional soil moisture  3. Produce smaller leaves to decrease SA for water loss 4. Produce ABA to reduce stomatal opening 
The organisms that gave rise to chloroplasts were most likely:
Giardia is a single celled organism that has nuclear membrane and cytoskeleton, but no mitochondria. Based on the endosymbiont theory you would predict;
It will have remnants of cell structures that are typically found in the same endosymbiont as mitochondria 
The "oxygen" revolution is thought to have caused a world-wide mass extinction event, followed by a rapid increase in organismal diversity. Which term best describes this process of increasing organismal diversity
adaptive radiation 
Statements about stomata
1. the size of the stomatal opening can be regulated 2. stomatal closure can be promoted by drought  3. stomata allow CO2 diffusion into leaf for photosynthesis  4. Stomatal cells have a primary cell wall 
Darwin had four postulates from which questions can be asked to test if natural selection is occurring
1. Are survival and reproduction within a population non-random?  2. Is there variation within the population?  3. Is variation within the population heritable? 4. Is there excess offspring from which only a portion will reproduce?
You are doing the laundry but have no dryer. You put up a line and hang up the pieces. As a result your laundry dries faster than it would have in the basket. Why?
the SA/V is larger
A moss cannot grow higher than a few centimeters tall due to the absence of this plant structure
Homeostasis is the ability to
maintain a more or less stable internal environment
Which plant cell is required for long distance transport of water from roots to leaves?
You discover a new species that has alternation of generations, apical meristems, and tracheas, but no seeds or flowers. It is most closely related?
A correct statement about temperature regulation in ectotherms is
their metabolic rate varies with the environment 
The arrangement of blood vessels in the legs of a goose leads to
1. a set-up of a gradient 2. reduced heat loss in periphery 3. reduction of heat loss to environment 4. heat exchange between blood vessels 
Which of stage in animal development corresponds to an invagination stage
A true statement about heritable traits is
it is the result of a mutation in a gametic cell 
Why is genetic variation a prereq for evolution by natural selection?
Genetic variation is what natural selection acts on to change allele frequencies 
When you eat mushrooms you are eating the stage in the fungal life cycle that primarily consists of
dikaryon cells 
What most closely resembles the female gametophyte of seed-bearing plants?
embryo sacs 
Marine iguanas on the galapagos island constrict blood vessels in their skin
to cool off more slowly in the water 
During meiosis cells ____ and ploidy is ______.
1. divide  2. decreased
For woody plants, the apical meristem produces primary growth in year one, and the next year the vascular cambium forms and produces secondary growth. As the secondary phloem is produced over many years, the primary phloem:
is shed as bark
This is associated with the evolution of the central nervous system
bilateral symmetry 
In a resting neuron
potassium diffuses out of the cell and sodium in
Compared to smaller endotherms, larger endotherms have a/ the ______ absolute metabolic rate and a/the _____ relative metabolic rate
1. larger  2. smaller
What are the closest relatives to animals?
You are gaining heat from the environment and have to loose the same amount to maintain your body temperature. The effector in this case is
sweat glands 
Which part of your nervous system can accelerate your heart rate?
sympathetic NS
You are getting cold halfway through lecture so you put on a sweater and soon feel better. This
reduced convection
You discover an unknown animal. It has a circulatory system, paired appendage, lives in water, has a thin epidermis with only living cells, and can transport gases in and out of an airfield cavity inside its body. This is most likely
a bony fish 
A voltmeter reads -60mv. What will it show if K+ channels in the membrane are opened
a more negative value
Hardwood and sapwood consist of
secondary xylem
Compared to fungi and animals, plants are unique in having
a multicellular 2n stage that undergoes meiosis to produce spores
How have fruits contributed to the success of angiosperms?
facilitating seed dispersal 
Where in a neuron do the first action potentials originate during signal transmission?
axon hillock
What are the closest relative of birds?
While you jogging on a 102F day you will observe
1. increased metabolic rate  2. heat gain by radiation  3. heat loss by evaporation  4. heat generation in muscles 
You are measuring the RP of a neuron at -60mv. You add TTX (tetrodotoxin) to the neuron. What happens?
the RP becomes more negative
Vasodilation under a cold shower will
increase heat loss 
What is the best description of the connection between the genotypic and phenotypic variation?
Genotypic variation can create phenotypic variation in a population
In comparison of birds with mammals, having four appendages is
a shared primitive character 
Which evolutionary mechanisms can lead to the adaptive evolution of a population?
1. Genetic drift  2. Natural selection  3. Migration  4. Mutation 
Neurons at rest are not at the equilibrium potential for Na+ because the cell membrane is
permeable to K+
Auxin enhances cell elongation through
1. activation of proton pumps  2. acidification of cell walls  3. loosening of cell walls  4. activation of expansins 
An example of signal transduction is
polar transport of auxin from seedling tip to the site of elongation
During homeostatic regulation what registers a certain value as too high or too low?
integration center 
Parts of the amniotic egg are
1. fluid-filled membrane  2. amnion  3. protective cover  4. yolk sac
Counter-current exchange in a warmer environment will
reduce heat gain 
The embryo sage in flower plant reproduction is:
1. multicellular 2. diploid 
1 animals evolve 2 plants evolve 3 vertebrates evolve 4 vertebrates move to land 5 lung-like structures evolve
An oak tree can be characterized as
1. fruit dispersed  2. wind dispersed  3. secondary growth 4. seed producing 
Which plant tissues carries out growth which increases plant height?
apical meristems 
A plant shaded by another plant
perceives the shade as a lower red:farred ratio which can trigger elongated growth 
These can be used to identify a chordate
1. post-anal tail 2. notochord  3. dorsal hollow nerve chord  4. pharyngeal slits 
The first animals evolve
680 mya 
Where does the concentration of the final urine take place in the kidney?
collecting duct
You are sitting at the beach. What is the PO2 in your lungs?
100 mm Hg 
Humans can produce urine that is
isoosmotic, hyper osmotic and hypoosmotic to blood
Why does the heart have its own blood vessel network, instead of taking oxygen and nutrients directly out of the blood it pumps?
exchange can only take place in the capillaries 
What would your effector organ be in the homeostatic regulation of ventilation for gas exchange?
What does the loop of Henle actually do?
it sets up a concentration gradient 
Fick's law implies
1. diffusion is faster when the gradient is large  2. diffusion is faster when the exchange area is large  3. diffusion is faster with ventilation  4. diffusion is faster when c1 is large
Mammalian gas exchange depends on
1. negative pressure  2. diaphragm contractions  3. perfusion  4. ventilation 
Organisms categorized as osmoconformers are most likely
ocean dwelling invertebrates 
The ________ have the lowest blood speed
The advantage of excreting wastes in your kidney as rather than as ammonia is that
urea is less toxic than ammonia 
What is the process by which materials are moved from the second capillary bed to the tubule?
Which feature of osmoregulation is found in both marine and freshwater bony fish?
gain of water through food 
The air pressure is 500 mm Hg. What is the PO2?
about 100 mm Hg 
Which structure is found in birds and mammals but not in other vertebrates
juxtamedullary nephrons 
These increase risk for heart disease
1. artherosclerosis  2. high levels of LDL  3. high blood pressure  4. low physical activity 
What is the main neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic NS?
Where do synaptic vesicles discharge their contents by exocytosis?
presynaptic membrane 
What controls the heart rate?
What is a true statement of regarding temporal summation?
several action potentials arrive in fast succession without allowing the postsynaptic cell to return to its resting potential 
One disadvantage to a nerve net is that it can conduct impulses in two directions from the point of stimulus. The vertebrate system conducts in only one direction. This one-way conducting occurs
because only the postsynaptic cells can bind neurotransmitters 
Counter current exchange in fish gills helps to maximize
Correct order for transmission at a chemical synapse 1 NT binds with receptors associated with the postsynaptic membrane 2 Ca2+ ions rush into the neuron's cytoplasm 3 AP depolarizes the synaptic terminal membrane 4 Ligand-gated channels open 5 Synaptic vesicles release NTs into the the s…
An organism that lacks integration centers
will not be able to interpret stimuli
Most freshwater fish are _____ relative to their environment, and ________ water
1. hyperosmotic  2. gain
Through how many capillary beds must a human red blood cells travel if it takes the shortest possible route from the the right ventricle stop the right atrium?
The only vertebrates in which blood flows directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without first returning to the heart are
The best description of neural transmission across a mammalian synaptic gap is
neural impulses cause the release of chemicals that diffuse across the gap 
In the lungs
1. Gas exchange takes place across moist membranes  2. The gases move across the exchange membranes by diffusion  3. The total SA is relatively large  4. The lining of the alveoli is only 1 cell thick 
Breathing is usually regulated by
CO2 and O2 concentrations and pH-level sensors 
Air rushes into the lungs of humans during inhalation because
the rib muscles and diaphragm contract, increasing the lung volume 
Organisms in which a circulating body fluid is distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the body's cells are likely to have
a closed circulatory system 
What would be expected if the amount of interstitial fluid surrounding the capillary beds of the lungs were to increase significantly?
the amount of oxygen entering the circulation from the lungs would decrease 
What would account for increased urine production as a result of drinking alcoholic beverages?
decreased amount of antidiuretic hormone ADH 
In a laboratory experiment with three groups one group of people drink pure water, a second drinks equal amounts of beer, and a third drinks an equal amount of salt solution. Which group will have the greatest volume of urine and which will have the least?
1. beer the most 2. salt solution the least 
Which structure increases the reabsorption of Na+ by aldosterone?
distal convoluted tubules 
You are nervous while taking this exam, because this part of the NS is very active
sympathetic NS 
Why are fish gills so active for gas exchange in water?
counter-current arrangement of water and blood flow 
Where does nutrient and gas exchange take place?
The blood vessel entering the lung is called the
pulmonary artery 
What is the correct sequence of blood flow through the heart?
1. vena cava  2. right atrium  3. right ventricle  4. left atrium  5. left ventricle  6. aorta 
Salmon migrate from the ocean to fresh water to reproduce. How do they regulate their water and ion content?
They stop secreting ions from the gills and start outpacing ions from the gills 
Propagation speed of APs double when
the axon diameter is quadrupled 
An inhibitory post-synaptic potential (IPSP) is caused by
opening of K+ channels on the postsynaptic membrane 
APs are usually propagated in only one direction along an axon because
the refractory period prevents opening of voltage-gated channels 
The depolarization of the presynaptic membrane of a motorneuron directly causes
voltage-gated calcium channels in the membrane to open 
What would your error signal be in the homeostatic regulation of ventilation for gas exchange?
more action potentials

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