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What does the sympathetic nervous system do?
Arouses (fight or flight)
What does the parasympathetic nervous system do?
Calms (relaxation and healing)
Why is emotion hard to measure?
-same response may indicate different emotions -some people are capable of masking emotions
What is the James-Lange Theory of emotion?
Emotion= perception of physiological arousal (stimuli>>arousal>>feeling)
What are the limitations of the James-Lange theory?
Same reaction could come from different stimuli (eg increased heart rate could be anger or fear)
What is the Cannon-Bard Theory?
Emotional and physiological reactions occur simultaneously
Limitation of Cannon-Bard
Sees emotion as primitive and instinctual, thus at odds with rational thought and reason
What is the Two-Factor Theory (Schacter/Singer)?
Two factors: physiological arousal, cognitive labeling. Interpret physiological arousal in light of external cues/context. cognitive attribution >> label emotion
What is the facial feedback hypothesis?
Facial expression can influence emotion
What study supports the facial feedback hypothesis?
Pencil Study. Patients would hold pencil in teeth (force smile) or lips (force frown) and watch cartoons. Teeth patients reported more enjoyment than lip patients.
What are display rules
Culturally based rules for when, where and how emotions should be expressed
What are the direct and indirect pathways involved in the emotion of fear?
Direct: thalamus >> amygdala (faster) Indirect: Thalamus >> sensory cortex >> amygdala (more detailed)
What is the evolutionary approach to behavior
Instincts: innate, universal pattern of behavior
What is the drive reduction theory?
Need >> Drive >> Behavior
What is the optimum arousal theory
Yerkes-Dodson Law: "Just right" level of arousal- there is a perfect level of stress to motivate you
What is Binge Eating Disorder
Recurrent episodes of compulsively eating too much food
What is anorexia nervosa
Relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation.
Characteristics of Anorexia Nervosa
Less than 85% of normal weight, fear of gaining weight, distorted body image
What is Bulimia Nervosa
Binge and purge (usually vomiting)
Characteristics of Bulimia Nervosa
Preoccupied with food. Fearful, depressed, anxious
What are the 5 steps in Maslow's Heirarchy of Needs from bottom to top
Physiological, Safety, Love/ Belongingness, Esteem, Self-Actualization Lower steps must be met before moving up
What is the Self-Determination Theory
Three basic needs: competance, relatedness, autonomy. Free choice in behavior is key
What is the hedonic treadmill
Human happiness adapts to our experience (baseline of happiness moves)
What is person perception
using social cues to form impressions of others
What faces are physically attractive and what is the "beautiful is good" stereotype
We like average faces. Beautiful is good= assume that beautiful people have good traits
What is attribution theory
attempt to discover underlying causes of behavior
What is fundamental attribution error
Errors in judging other's behavior. Usually overestimate impact of internal traits and underestimate the importance of external causes
What is stereotype threat?
A self-fulfilling fear about being judged on the basis of a negative stereotype about your group
When and how do we make social comparisons
We make them by evaluating ourselves in relation to other people when no object means are available
What is cognitive dissonance theory
discomfort caused by dissonant thoughts (attitudes vs behavior)
What is self-perception theory
Individuals make inferences about their own attitudes by perceiving their own behavior, especially if their attitudes are unclear
What is a self-serving bias
tendency to take credit for success and deny responsibility for failure
What is the false consensus effect?
overestimating the degree to which everyone else thinks or acts the way we do
What is prosocial behavior
Actions that benefit another person
What is altruism
An unselfish interest in helping someone else
What is the empathetic-altruism hypothesis
helping purely for the sake of helping
what is the empathetic-joy hypothesis
helping out of joy received from observing other's needs being met
What is the negative-state relief model
Help to relieve negative emotions experienced in viewing others in need
What is the bystander effect
Individuals are less likely to help when there are other people around
What is diffusion of responsiblity
If there's more potential helpers then each person feels less individually responsible
What is the hostile attribution bias
Interpreting others' intentions as hostile, even when they're ambiguous
What are the differences between reactive and proactive aggression
Reaction: emotionally driven retaliation Proactive: Calculated, unemotional aggression
Compare overt vs relational aggression
Overt: physical attacks, direct verbal attacks (commonly males) Relational: Harm others by way of social relationships (commonly females)
What are ingratiation and foot-in-the-door
Compliance tactics. Ingratiation: efforts to get others to like us. Foot in door: smaller request followed by larger request
What is door-in-the-face and thats-not-all
Compliance techniques. Door in face: large request, followed by smaller request. That's not all: offer made in increments without opportunity to respond
What factors influence conformity
International social influence: desire to be right Normative social influence: desire to be liked, not make waves
What factors influence obedience
Power, responsibility, gradation, lack of models
What is group think and why is it bad?
Impaired decision making due to striving for group harmony. Done at expense of making the right decision
Compare social facilitation and social loafing
Social facilitation: better performance in presence of others Social loafing: exert less effort when in a group
What is the IAT
Implicit associations test: examines attitudes that exist on a deeper, hidden level and are not outwardly expressed
What are the explanations about prejudice
Competition between groups and stereotypes (in group is heterogeneous, but out-group is homogeneous)
What is Allport's Contact Hypothesis
Contact under optimal conditions improves intergroup relations
What did the Sherif's robbers cave study
Having groups work together is effective in improving relations
What is sexual orientation
direction of erotic interests- refers to more than just sexual behavior
What factors influence sexual orientation
brain development, prenatal hormones (testosterone absorption) and genetics
What do we know about psychological, relationship and family functioning of homosexuals
Psych: no difference besides challenges facing discrimination Relationships: greater satisfaction, more likely to end relationships Families: less likely to have children, but children turn out no different
Key differences in sexuality
Women: more selective, more aroused by touch, more likely to engage in bisexuality Men: aroused by what they see, think about sex more, less fidelity
Differentiate fetishes and paraphilias
Fetish: object or activity that arouses sexual desire Paraphilia: when fetishes are too extreme and become disorders by being harmful
What factors influence attraction
Proximity, reciprocity, physical health, similarity
What are the two models of close relationships
Social exchange theory: success of relationship a function of felt equity Investment model: commitment to partener and investment in relationship. Lack of attractive alternatives

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