UT BIO 311D - Final Exam Study Guide (42 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide



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Final Exam Study Guide

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Pages:
42
Type:
Study Guide
School:
University of Texas at Austin
Course:
Bio 311d - Introductory Biology II
Edition:
2
Documents in this Packet

Unformatted text preview:

BIO 311D 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide Lectures 1 31 Mitosis and Meiosis Lecture 1 The Stages of Meiosis 1 Interphase Chromosomes duplicate 2 Meiosis I Homologous chromosomes separate a Prophase I Chromosomes condense homologous chromosomes pair up synapsis and crossing over occurs b Metaphase I Tetrads line at metaphase plate microtubules attach to kinetochores c Anaphase I Pairs of homologous chromosomes separate and move toward pole by spindle apparatus d Telophase I Cytokinesis Cleavage furrow divides the cell into two 3 Meiosis II Sister chromatids separate a Prophase II Spindle apparatus forms b Metaphase II Sister chromatids due to crossing over sister chromatids are no longer identical align at the metaphase plate and microtubules attach to kinetochores c Anaphase II Sister chromatids separate and move towards opposite poles d Telophase II Cytokinesis Nuclei form and chromosomes decondense Each daughter cell is genetically different from the others Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis Property DNA Replication Number of Divisions Synapsis of Chromosomes Number of Daughter Cells Role in the Animal Body Mitosis Interphase One None Two Identical Growth Repair Meiosis Interphase Two Prophase I Four Unique Produces Gametes Characteristics Unique to Meiosis all occur in Meiosis I 1 Prophase I Synapsis and crossing over occurs 2 Metaphase I Tetrads paired homologous chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate 3 Anaphase I Homologous chromosomes separate instead of sister chromatids Mendel and the Gene Idea Lectures 2 3 Advantages of pea plants 1 2 3 4 Many varieties with distinct heritable features Mating can be controlled Each flower has sperm producing organs stamens and egg producing organs carpel Cross pollination fertilization between different plants involves dusting one plant with pollen from another The Law of Segregation Two alleles for a heritable character segregate during gamete formation and end up in different gametes Discovered by using monohybrids



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