UNO CSCI 8150 - Processors and Memory Hierarchy (10 pages)

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Processors and Memory Hierarchy



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Processors and Memory Hierarchy

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Pages:
10
School:
University of Nebraska Omaha
Course:
Csci 8150 - Advanced Computer Architecture

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Design Space of Processors CSCI 8150 Advanced Computer Architecture Hwang Chapter 4 Processors and Memory Hierarchy 4 1 Advanced Processor Technology Processors can be mapped to a space that has clock rate and cycles per instruction CPI as coordinates Each processor type occupies a region of this space Newer technologies are enabling higher clock rates Manufacturers are also trying to lower the number of cycles per instruction Thus the future processor space is moving toward the lower right of the processor design space CISC and RISC Processors Complex Instruction Set Computing CISC processors like the Intel 80486 the Motorola 68040 the VAX 8600 and the IBM S 390 typically use microprogrammed control units have lower clock rates and higher CPI figures than Reduced Instruction Set Computing RISC processors like the Intel i860 SPARC MIPS R3000 and IBM RS 6000 which have hard wired control units higher clock rates and lower CPI figures Superscalar Processors This subclass of the RISC processors allow multiple instructoins to be issued simultaneously during each cycle The effective CPI of a superscalar processor should be less than that of a generic scalar RISC processor Clock rates of scalar RISC and superscalar RISC machines are similar VLIW Machines Very Long Instruction Word machines typically have many more functional units that superscalars and thus the need for longer 256 to 1024 bits instructions to provide control for them These machines mostly use microprogrammed control units with relatively slow clock rates because of the need to use ROM to hold the microcode 1 Superpipelined Processors These processors typically use a multiphase clock actually several clocks that are out of phase with each other each phase perhaps controlling the issue of another instruction running at a relatively high rate The CPI in these machines tends to be relatively high unless multiple instruction issue is used Processors in vector supercomputers are mostly superpipelined and use



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