TAMU GEOL 101 - Geology 101 Lab Day 3 (2 pages)

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Geology 101 Lab Day 3



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Geology 101 Lab Day 3

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Lab Notes Day 3


Pages:
2
School:
Texas A&M University
Course:
Geol 101 - Principles Of Geology

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Geology 101 Lab 3 Monday September 15 2014 Rocks and The Rock Cycle Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 The Rock Cycle Rocks are the solid materials that comprise nearly all of the earth moon and rocky planets These earth materials are changed both on surface and inside the earth The rock cycle is a conceptual model that explains how the various types of rocks are formed deformed and transformed Three types of rocks o Igneous Form as molten lava or magma rock cools and solidifies Basalt flow in Hawaii o Sedimentary Form from loose weathered sediment that is compacted and or cemented together or by precipitation out of a solution Sandstone in Wyoming o Metamorphic Formed as a result of intense heat and pressure Gneiss in Canadian Rockies Igneous Rocks Rocks that are formed when molten rock called magma cools Magma is melted rock that can form in the earth s crust and upper mantle As magma cools and solidifies it forms Igneous rocks are described by their texture and composition Texture describes the size shape and arrangement of the crystals comprising the rock In general a slower cooling magma results in coarser grained igneous rock Igneous Rock Textures Phaneritic o Igneous rocks are coarse grained consisting of a mass of intergrown crystals of roughly equivalent size that can be identified without the aid of a hand lens or microscope Aphanitic o Igneous rocks are very fine grained o The crystals that comprise them cannot be distinguished by the naked eye Porphorytic o Igneous rocks have two distinct sized of crystals The larger crystals are termed phenocrysts and the surrounding smaller ones called groundmass Pegmatitic o Igneous rocks are very coarse grained Individual crystals of pegmatitic rocks exceed 1cm Vesicular o Texture results from gas bubbles trapped within the magma o Very volatile and rich mixed with the cooling forms the cavities Glassy o Texture results when unordered ions are frozen before they can unite into an ordered crystal structure Pyroclastic o Igneous



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