TAMU GEOL 101 - Geology 101 Class 2 (4 pages)

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Geology 101 Class 2



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Geology 101 Class 2

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Lecture Notes Day 2


Pages:
4
School:
Texas A&M University
Course:
Geol 101 - Principles Of Geology

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Geology 101 539 Class 2 Test 1 Thursday September 4 14 Chapter 2 Plate Tectonics The Unifying Theory Part 1 of 2 Outline The discovery of plate tectonics o Continental drift o Seafloor spreading o The great synthesis 1963 1968 Earth s tectonic plates o Divergent boundaries o Convergent boundaries o Transform fault boundaries Continental Drift Large scale horizontal movements cause earth s major topographical features o Mountains o Oceans basins Alfred Wegener 1880 1930 Proposed in 1912 based on observation of drifting ice sheets His analogy was used with icebergs floating on the water and drifting around Geographic Fit Of The Continents o One of the first pieces of evidence use to argue for continental drift o All continents were once together in a supercontinent called Pangea North America South America Africa Europe example map Fossil Match Across The Atlantic o Paleontologists Animals and plants diverge in evolution after the postulated breakup time Rejection and Acceptance of Continental Drift o Initially rejected by geologists Geologists said it is too good to be true New data after WWII led to 1960s plate tectonic revolution Ocean Drilling started happening Different data from magnetic sonar ocean drilling etc led to this revolution Earth Science Revolution o Now fully embraced Textbooks re written Seafloor Spreading Convection in the Earth s mantle could break up and push continents apart Arthur Holmes 1890 1965 He worked with the idea of convection o Heat rises and cool sinks Harry Hess 1906 1969 He used the hypothesis of mantle convection to explain seafloor spreading island arcs gravity anomalies and serpentine rocks He worked on a cruise ship and use that to his advantage to create and collect data History of the ocean basins 1962 He is the father of modern plate tectonics Iceland o An opening rift along the Mid Atlantic ridge o new ocean crust forms at mid ocean ridge Earthquakes and Volcanoes o Their locations are predicted by plate tectonics o The



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