UA CHEM 241A - Exam 1 Study Guide (12 pages)

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Exam 1 Study Guide

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Exam 1 Study Guide


This study guide is lectures 1-7, chapters 1-4 on Organic Chemistry. It also contains sample problems and information about the test structure and where to find study sessions.

Study Guide
University of Arizona
Chem 241a - Lectures in Organic Chemistry

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Chem 241a 1nd Edition Exam 1 Study Guide Lectures 1 7 Test Format the format of the chemistry tests are all short answer They consist of 5 7 maybe more pages of questions that you can answer Example tests will be at the end of this study guide There are review sessions Mondays in Koffler 218 at 3 and this Wednesday from 6 8 in the Steward Observatory N210 Also Dr Dollinger has office hours Tuesdays and Thursdays from 1 00 2 30 pm or by appointment in Koffler 335 Good luck Lecture 1 3 August 26 28 September 2 What is organic chemistry Organic chemistry is the study of carbon based compounds typically involving nitrogen and oxygen atoms Recall the electron configuration for Carbon 1s22s22p2 carbon has four valence electrons but wants an octet Therefore it must bond I Bonding a Ionic bond the loss gain of electrons e i Ex NaCl sodium completely loses its e and gives it to chlorine so with the charges sodium chloride is Na Clii This occurs with the alkaline metals first two groups and the non metals except noble gases b Covalent bond equal sharing of ei Ex CH4 With its tetrahedral shape more on that later there is no polarity in the molecule thus all e are shared equally ii This occurs with bonding of two non metals c Polar covalent bonds unequal sharing of ei Ex HCl refer to the period table when the differences of electronegativity are high the dipole moment causes one atom Cl to pull the charge closer to itself giving it a partially negative charge The other molecule H then gets a partially positive charge because the e is being pulled away from it slightly ii This separation of charge is the dipole iii Any molecule that contains one polar bond is a polar molecule thus operating through polar covalent bonding iv Dipoles are additive cancel each other out this is where geometry comes in v Geometry can be seen through Lewis Structures II Lewis Structures A diagram that depicts the bonding between atoms and the lone pairs that exist a Ex Formic acid CH2O2 i First we

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