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lOMoARcPSD 31101189 Chapter 2 Notes Chapter 2 Notes United States History Ii Northern Virginia Community College United States History Ii Northern Virginia Community College Studocu is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university Studocu is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university Downloaded by Arya Shah apancake99 gmail com lOMoARcPSD 31101189 Chapter 2 Notes Colliding Cultures Introduction Spanish America o The Columbia Exchange transformed both sides of the Atlantic but with dramatically disparate outcomes o New diseases wiped out entire civilizations in the America while newly imported nutrient rich foodstuffs enabled a European population boom o Spain benefited most immediately as the wealth of the Aztec and Incan empires strengthened the Spanish monarchy o Spain used its new riches to gain an advantage over other European nations but this advantage was soon contested o Portugal France the Netherlands and England all raced to the New World eager to match the gains of the Spanish o Native peoples greeted the new visitors with responses ranging from welcoming cooperation to aggressive violence but the ravages of disease and the possibility of new trading relationships enabled Europeans to create settlements all along the western rim of the Atlantic worlds o Spain extended its reach in the Americas after reaping the benefits of its colonies in Mexico the Caribbean and South America o Expeditions slowly began combing the continent and bringing Europeans into the modern day United States in the hopes of establishing religious and economic dominance in a new territory o Juan Ponce de Leon arrived in the area named La Florida in 1513 o He found between 150 000 300 000 Native Americans o But then 2 and a half centuries of contact with European and African peoples whether though war slave raids or foreign disease decimated Florida s indigenous population o European explorers meanwhile had hoped to find great wealth in Florida but reality never aligned with their imaginations o In the first of the 16th century Spanish colonizers fought frequently with Florida s Native peoples as well as with other Europeans o In the 1560 s Spain expelled French Protestants called Huguenots from the area near modern day Jacksonville o In 1586 English privateer Sir Francis Drake burned the wooden settlement of St Augustine o At the dawn of the 17th century Spain s reach in Florida extended from the mouth of the St John s River south to the environs of St Augustine about 1 000 miles o The Spaniards attempted to duplicate methods for establishing control used previously in Mexico the Caribbean and the Andes o The Crown granted missionaries the right to live among Timucua and Guale villagers in the late 1500 s and 1600 s and encouraged settlement though the encomienda system grants of Indian labor o The Apalachee Downloaded by Arya Shah apancake99 gmail com lOMoARcPSD 31101189 In the 1630 s the mission system extended into the Apalachee district in the Florida panhandle One of the most powerful tribes in Florida at the time of contact claimed the territory from the modern Florida Georgia border to the Gulf of Mexico Grew an abundance of corn and other crops Indian traders carried surplus products along the Camino Real royal road that connected the western anchor of the mission system with St Augustine o Juan de Onate In 1598 Juan de Onate led 400 settlers soldiers and missionaries from Mexico into New Mexico When Onate sacked the pueblo city of Acoma the sky city the Spaniards slaughtered nearly half of its roughly 1 500 inhabitants including women and children Ordered 1 foot cut off every surviving male over 15 and enslaved the remaining women and children o Santa Fe The first permanent European settlement in the Southwest was established in 1610 Few Spaniards settled in the Southwest because of the distance from Mexico City and the dry and hostile environment By 1680 only about 3 000 colonists called Spanish New Mexico home There they traded and exploited the local Puebloan peoples The region s Puebloan population had plummeted from as many as 60 000 down to about 17 000 in 1680 o Spain shifted strategies after the military expeditions wove their way through the southern and western half of North America o Missions became the engine of colonization o Missionaries most of whom were members of the Franciscan religious order provided Spain with an advance guard in North America o Catholicism had always justified Spanish conquest and colonization always carried religious imperatives o By the early 17th century Spanish friars had established dozens of missions along the Rio Grande and California Spain s Rivals Emerge o While Spain plundered the New World unrest plagued Europe o The Reformation threw England and France the 2 European powers capable of contesting Spain into turmoil o Black Legend Drew on religious differences and political rivalries Spain had successful conquests in France Italy Germany and the Netherlands and left many in those nations yearning to break free of Spanish influence Spanish barbarities were foiling a tremendous opportunity for the expansion of Christianity across the globe and that a benevolent Downloaded by Arya Shah apancake99 gmail com lOMoARcPSD 31101189 conquest of the New World by non Spanish monarchies offered the surest salvation of the New World s pagan masses o The French The French crown subsidized exploration in the early 16th century Early French explorers sought a fabled Northwest Passage a mythical waterway passing though the North American continent to Asia Canada s St Lawrence River appeared to be such a passage stretching deep into the continent and into the Great Lakes French colonial possessions centered on these bodies of water and later down the Mississippi River to the port of New Orleans French colonization developed through investment from private trading companies Traders established Port Royal in Acadia Nova Scotia in 1603 and launched trading expeditions that stretched down the Atlantic Coast as far as Cape Cod The needs of the fur trade set the future pattern of French colonization Quebec Founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Provided the foothold for what would be New France French fur traders placed a higher value on cooperating with the Indians than on establishing a successful French colonial footprint Few Frenchmen traveled to the New World to settle permanently Many persecuted French Protestants Huguenots sought to

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