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BSC 109 Exam 2 Study Guide This study guide is to aid you in studying the course material for the exam The study guide does not replace lecture material or reading the text The topics listed below is a non exhaustive list of the main points in each chapter All material presented in lecture and the text is fair game for the exam Ch 6 Muscular System What are the primary functions of the muscular system Mobility Produce movement resist movement Voluntary conscious control picking up pen Involuntary unconscious control beating of heart Protection Circulation Respiration cardiac muscle diaphragm Temperature Regulation movement generates heat systems level and ATP generates heat cellular level Transportation of Nutrients and Fluids nutrients waste blood Study the anatomy of the muscles from the diagram in the powerpoint You only need to know the 15 major muscles from the knee to the neck Discuss the organization of individual muscle fibers cells into whole muscles Inside to outside muscle fibers cells fascicles bundles of the fibers muscle group of muscle cells Muscle Fibers long tubed shaped Multinucleate Packed with myofibrils long structures which contain proteins actin and myosin Describe a sarcomere and explain how it functions in a muscle cell Sarcomere contractile unit made of microfilaments that contains THREE proteins Myosin forms thick filaments Actin forms thin filaments Troponin covers myosin preventing contraction Z lines attachment points for sarcomeres A segment of myofibril extending from one z line to the next Excitable contract in response to electrical or chemical stimuli All muscle cells have one mechanism of action Summarize the sliding filament mechanism of muscle contraction They contract shorten then relax lengthen Muscle Contraction Formation of cross bridges between thin and thick filaments and each sarcomere shortens a little Sliding Filament Mechanism Nerve activation Calcium is released from sarcoplasmic reticulum Calcium binds to troponin Troponin tropomyosin complex shifts position Myosin binding site exposed Myosin heads form cross bridges with actin Actin filaments are pulled toward center of sarcomere Sarcomere shortens Know the three types of muscle tissue and how they differ from each other Skeletal Muscle attaches to skeleton and provides strength mobility and protection voluntary Synergistic muscle works together to create the same movement Antagonistic muscles paired muscles that oppose when one contracts the other is relaxed Origin end of muscle that attached to relatively stationary bone Insertion end of muscle attached to another bone across a joing action pulls insertion toward origin Cardiac Muscle exclusively in the heart involuntary cells joined by intercalated disks and have gap junctions allowing cells to electrically stimulate the next one respond to stimulation from autonomic nervous system modify degree of contraction Smooth Muscle walls of digestive tract blood vessels uterus ureters involuntary cells joined by gap junctions allowing cells to activate each other respond to stimulation from autonomic nervous system modify degree of contraction Study the energy sources that create ATP for muscle cells ATP is required for contraction relaxation and is replenished by a variety of means Stored ATP used for about 10 seconds Creatine phosphate 3 to 5 times amount of stored ATP used for about 30 seconds Stored glycogen Variable some store more than others used for about 3 5 minutes Aerobic metabolism of glucose fatty acids and other high energy molecules high yield always present Describe several diseases or disorders that occur in the muscular system Muscular Dystrophy genetic disease Extra Calcium activates enzymes that destroy muscle proteins muscle weakening and wasting Tetanus Infection of deep wound by bacteria muscles forcefully contract can cause death Muscle Cramps often caused by dehydration and lack of oxygen to muscle cells Pulled Torn Muscles result from overstretching of a muscle fibers tear apart ACL tear UCL tear Fasciitis inflammation of fascia sole of foot Tendonitis Inflammation of Tendons Ch 7 Blood What are the primary functions of blood Transportation Blood is responsible for the transport of gases nutrients metabolic wastes excess salts and excess water Regulation Blood helps to regulate body temperature the volume of water in the body and the pH of body fluids Defense Blood contains cells that help protect the body against infections and illness Components of blood also help in prevention of excessive blood loss through the clotting mechanism Plasma 55 Water Electrolytes Hormones A chemical secreted by one organ that travels and affects another distant organ State the composition of blood and give the function s for each of the components Name of hormone Organ that produces hormone Final Destination of hormone Function of hormone Gases Nutrients and Waste Proteins all plasma proteins assist in transporting molecules Albumins maintain osmotic balance with interstitial fluid Globulins diverse group of proteins that help fight infections Clotting Proteins important for creating blood clots helpful Formed Elements 45 Red Blood Cells 44 transport oxygen to body tissues transport carbon dioxide away from tissues created in spongy bone destroyed in spleen short life span hematocrit the percentage of whole blood that consists of red blood cells high is risky hemoglobin oxygen binding protein found in blood made of 4 polypeptide chains that each contain a heme group heme groups are ring structures with one iron atom each each hemoglobin can potentially bind up to four molecules of oxygen with oxygen bright red without oxygen dark purple regulated by erythropoietin EPO secreted by kidney targets spongy bone increases red blood cell production also called leukocytes number increases during infections contain nucleus and are translucent White Blood Cells 1 defend the body against invading organisms abnormal cells Platelets take part in blood clotting as part of the body s defense mechanism Blood is non Newtonian a liquid that behaves as a solid when pressure is applied due to uneven distribution of solids that increases viscosity under pressure Classify and discuss the specific functions of each of the five types of leukocytes Also covered in chapter 9 Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils Monocytes most abundant 60 surround and engulf foreign cells and encounter infection first circulating increased during bacterial and fungal


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UA BSC 109 - Exam 2 Study Guide

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