psu LARCH 60 - Module 2 Lecture Notes

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lOMoARcPSD 36188278 Module 2 Lecture Notes Module 2 Lecture Notes History Of Design On The Land The Pennsylvania State University History Of Design On The Land The Pennsylvania State University Studocu is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university Studocu is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university Downloaded by Taha Omar tahaomar2816 gmail com lOMoARcPSD 36188278 I Intro to Colonial Towns A Health of Native Americans Before and After European Contact a People traveled by way of a land bridge covering the Bering Strait Thus becoming isolated from disease causing pathogens from 1 Current Theory Europe 2 Native Americans a Traveled slowly on foot and in small clusters b Through semi arctic conditions c Did not travel with hooved animals like cows pigs or horses d As a result American Natives experienced an absence of diseases that we common place of epidemic proportions in Europe 3 BEFORE 4 AFTER a While Europe was plagued by disease native people lived in splendid isolation and had no immunity b The blessing of American NAtives Isolation from Old World Disease became their greatest curse a Old world diseases caused traumatic population losses smallpox was pernicious killer b Environmental Impacts 1 Introduced animals and vegetation never before seen on this land the environment and inhabitant were changed B Our Ethnocentric Ways forever 1 Belief of superiority in one s ethnic group 2 Results in history from on perspective usually the winning side C Three Cultural Regions areas of settlement by like minded people results in distinct regional landscapes 1 New England Puritans a Seekings Greater Structure 1 Relationship to England a Freedom to practice religion greater structure tired to England Separatists b Wanted to do nothing with jamestown or England the reason they ended up in New England instead of Jamestown c What they Found Rocky Soils Harsh Winter not Downloaded by Taha Omar tahaomar2816 gmail com lOMoARcPSD 36188278 good for farming 2 Character of Designed Landscapes a Strictly organized communities and the Importance of Order 3 RESULTS IN a TOWNS b Formed the common landscape c Organized on a grid with commons and meeting house in the center d Lots of small towns reflect geography 2 Tidewater South a Land Relationship with England 1 Mild Climate with long growing season deep navel rivers Large ship access 2 People maintained a close relationship to England a True Colonists b Entrepreneurial Landscapes 1 Farming for money 2 Single minded landscapes for profit c RESULTS IN 1 PLANTATIONS a Self sufficient farm of large acreage producing cash crops 3 Middle Colonies a Land and Climate 1 And the average of the two extremes with land climate 2 Tolerance represented by Penn s Intent b Penn s Intent 1 All purpose religious freedom 2 Welcoming to everyone a City of Brotherly Love c RESULTS IN 1 FARMS TOWNS 2 People who were wanting to be with one another between 3 Town is the market center where the crops are sold for the the farms and the towns Townspeople Downloaded by Taha Omar tahaomar2816 gmail com lOMoARcPSD 36188278 II Designs of Colonial South A Video The Columbus Myth 1 Columbus came to Hispaniola and killed the native people and used them as slaves to use them to get his gold B Influence from Spain 1 St Augustine Function a First spanish settlement in Florida b Functioned as a military outpost c Represented Spain s self proclaimed authority in New World 2 1573 Law of Indies a First planning regulations seen in the US land b Characteristics 1 Very Specific 2 Architectural unity 3 All Encompassing Both Design and Native Management 4 Criticism Not Site specific written in spain implemented in US no geographic deviation a Same in SoCal as in Florida C Influence from England Via France England was very strongly influenced by Franch Baroque for a short time 1 Middleton Place 1740 Plantation a Relationship to England 1 Heavy contact with england b Plantation Characteristics 1 French Baroque Influence a Entrance Court Chateau Sequence b Parterre c Flat sheets of water d Axis special axis called the Chateau Sequence e SMALL SCALE just a rice plantation 2 Southern plantation a Self sufficient with strong ties to England D Capital Cities 1 Francis Nicholson as influenced by France a Anapolis Maryland 1694 1 Unique Design Characteristics a Rond Point and Allee Downloaded by Taha Omar tahaomar2816 gmail com lOMoARcPSD 36188278 b Influenced by Franch Baroque Garden Design i Hunting paths through the woods that meet ii Traffic Circles inspired by Rond Point and in the center Allees c Important buildings on hills as focal points d Problem The dynamic shooting allees created a lot of awkward shapes b Williamsburg Virginia 1698 1 Simplified version a Simplified Rond point and Allees i Orthogonal design as it is straight lines instead of off a circular point b Same ideas of Annapolis 2 New phase in preservation a First time a town was used for Preservation of colonial times b Phases i ii Old unrealistic idealized New Shows realistic conditions E What do all these places have in common 1 Reflection of Home Country Issues Values Spain and England 2 Extraordinary care given to their design III Northern Colonial Towns Guest Speaker A 1 Human Welfare B 2 Economics C GROWTH BY D Boston 1 2 1 Early development a Good Harbor b Defensible c Moved across the bay to an island with a large coast for ports d Economics for Trade e Initially focused on harbor f Commons protect 1 The Commons a Set aside for recreation b Military drills Downloaded by Taha Omar tahaomar2816 gmail com lOMoARcPSD 36188278 c Public gatherings 2 Human Welfare protected the commons from development 3 Owned by the public 4 Commons still exist today g Infill used for growth 1 Drumlin mounds of sand and rock deposited from the glacier after melting 2 Drumlins were excavated for development 3 The extra ground was used to expand the coast 4 Connected the island with mainland E New York 2 Originally called New Amsterdam Off of Amsterdam Netherlands 1 Irregular to GRID pattern 2 Rationale for grid 3 Legacy of grid a Idea taken from Amsterdam Netherlands with a more radial grid a Initially an organic design streets were constructed as needed b Most cheap and convenient to live in a Later design was a grid focus easy to understand and survey 1 The layout ignored the topography b The grids head west as land is being settled 1 Kansas City 2 Oklahoma City 3 Salt Lake City c Became the standard for new town

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