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1 Ancient Egypt Lesson 1 A Neolithic Revolution 8 000 BCE 5 000 BCE Intentionality in Design aka messaging From a nomadic group of humans so settlements The beginning of civilization through acts of settlement This revolution represented CHANGE 1 Before Characteristics a Nomadic hunter gatherers 1 8 millions years of nomadic lifestyles b Dependent on the environment c Mere figures moving through the landscape leaving little evidence behind Only small stories and artifacts d Very little indication of built environment 2 After Characteristics a Permanent settlements led to human advancement in terms of politics housing neighborhoods There was a higher level of sophistication b Humans became shapers of the land they live on c Acquired power to control their immediate environment Control of land became an extension of the ruler s power 3000 B C E by this time we had things like irrigation and farming techniques writing astronomy math and navigation 3 Hammurabi Code Given to him by God written in Akkadian deals in different subjects such as family life property rights agriculture and societal laws Proof of societal advancement a Concept of Land Ownership which entailed Property Rights Land Ownership and Power to control nature The code included ideas of property rights and land ownership evidence of a growing separation from nature 4 Universal Influences on Land a Geography and Climate Arid hot dry with the Nile River and Flooding being critical for survival in the desert landscape limited water and building materials Houses used mud bricks because stones were rare and mud made more sense logistically Temples were made from stone as that was the material reserved for the more important structures Cities and temples made along the Nile This provided means for agriculture silt and irrigation and transportation Life mimicked larger natural processes like birth and death mimicking the rising and setting of the sun Perceived life to be intertwined with nature s cycles many deities present in nature i ii iii i ii b Religion iii i ii iii i i ii i c Linear Natural Order Their understanding of who they were was tied into their natural balance of how they lived with everything around them The importance of the Nile the Sun s life giving power the essential presence of water for survival and their Gods presence in all of these resulted in an organizational directive to their designs Sun moving from east to west and the Nile moving south to north Link to nature s systems leads to orthogonal or right angled design 5 Egyptian Design Response the specific set of influence result in logical even predictable design responses a Enclosed Oases Some occur naturally but they also occur by design needed because of climate and geography b Durable Megalithic Mass The sacred structure was meant to last forever Only the most durable stones were used because of need created by climate geography and religion c Orthogonal Development Thanks to Axis Right angled design linear natural order was in sync with belief systems Caused by climate geography and religion The right angled designs result in bilateral symmetry AXIS A straight line around which elements are arranged ii iii d AXIS i A visible or implied line connecting two points about which elements can be arranged that often results in bilateral symmetry 6 Two Examples typologies a The Garden i ii iii iv v Enclosed oasis Orthogonal development Bilateral symmetry due to design being based on Axis Lots of plants with Date palms being prized Common feature of luxury residences b The Mortuary Temple Enclosed oasis Orthogonal development Bilateral symmetry due to design being based on axis Durable megalithic mass Spatially Organized i ii iii iv v B Mesopotamia 1 Birth of The Park developed by Assyrians a Characteristics Artificial human made areas i ii Walled used as a hunting considered royal responsibility so kings practiced here reserve Private not open to the public since kings used the park for military victory parties Cool shaded oasis iii iv 2 Status of Temples Today a The temples are eroding away from pollution b The water table rises and raises the moisture levels in the temples c We have become separated from nature divorced and impotent to and destroys them its power Lesson 2 2 Ancient Greece Golden Age 500 BCE 300 BCE A Influences for dry climates exchange their landscapes accomplish 1 Geography and Climate Genius Loci Greece was a very pleasant place with a mild climate that reinforced the notion of living outdoors in the landscape While raising food in such an arid climate was a challenge the Greeks were able to be very much in tune with their landscape a Olive Tree sturdy and tenacious likes it people and used a tap root b Outdoor life because of mild climate fostered by the intellectual c Genius loci the spirit of place d Prolonged time spent outside resulted in an unusual awareness of 2 Intellectual Curiosity Because they were all brought together outdoors a very socialized culture resulted a Keen awareness of individual worth a belief in what humans could b They were explorers of the mind c Came up with democracy philosophy hero theatre architecture etc Interest in Democracy stemmed from their intense desire for all citizens to be able to participate in and contribute to this amazing civilization 3 a They created democracy b Based on Demos or rule by the people 4 Eidos a Idea b The perfect representation or search for perfection c Plato s Allegory of the Cave Facing the backside of the cave from a view of the doorway You are seeing your whole world The horse you see on that wall is the idea of the horse not THE horse One s perception of the world should always be challenged we should strive for personal accomplishment B Eidos in Temple Design 1 Acropolis Athena Delphi Apollo a Search for Eidos in Architecture Careful choice of design elements and where to put the Complex in the landscape Athena s Complex in Acropolis The Complex must understand her personality all decisions of details of the complex are chosen based on her personality dignity complexity all the different temples statues and structures are to represent each of Athena s traits Created to Dramatize experiences with Athena in the middle of it all Reference the layout of Acropolis Acropolis layout was using spatial dynamics to give visitors the cold shoulder buildings are turned away d Examples of Spatial Dynamics and Effect e Empathy with Nature Links back to Genius Loci Utilization

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psu LARCH 60 - Lesson 1

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