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GSU BIOL 1103K - Brown Banded Roaches

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Brown-banded roaches(not found in Georgia, but common in California)Details of Biology:Ootheca with 13-18 eggsGlued to inconspicuous places such as behind furniture,cabinets, picture frames, walls and ceilingsHatch in about 50 daysFemale can produce up to 14 oothecae in her lifetime(about 6 months)Nymphs molt 6-8 times over 5-6 monthsNeed high temperature, but can survive lower humiditythan German roachesOccupy similar habitats as German roaches, but can alsooccur higher up (eye level and above)*Smokey-brown roach- Common in outdoor areas such as wood piles, leaf litter of Georgia- Will invade houses, and can occupy similar areas as American roach- Controlled largely through limiting entry to houses (e.g. screens, weather-stripping);reducing habitat. Such as wood piles near the house can help- Usually not a problem, but if they find lots of food in a house they can become a problem(sanitation rather than pesticides is the best option to reduce problems)- “Wild” roaches: Strictly outdoors but will on occasion come in to get food- Termites: formerly their own order (Isoptera), recently merged into Blattodea.“Social roaches”Nuisance invaders that are often confused with roaches:can colonize homes but many are basically harmless- Crickets; (Orthoptera: Gryllidae)- Camel (or Cave) Crickets; Orthoptera: GryllacrididaeEarwigs (Order Dermaptera)Silverfish (Order Thysanura)Other Problem invaders:AntsHymenoptera: FormicidaeArgentine antsFire antsCockroach control*Integrated pest management (IPM)strategy takes into account the biology of the pest to design an efficient plan for control;integrates various control measures (but can include pesticides as a last resort)1) Monitor to discover location of 3 things all peridomesticspecies need:FoodWaterHarborage (place to aggregate or hide)2) Then remove access to above needs as much as possiblewith sanitation (clean dishes and countertops daily, proper food disposal/storage) or by limitingmovements (caulk sinks, seal around pipes)3) If a roach problem persists after access to food and shelter in denied, you may have activelyeliminate existing populations (but try safe methods first)- insecticidal baits: roaches carry them back to their colony (and you do not need to spreadthroughout your house)- boric acid/diatomaceous earth (“natural insecticides” that are not toxic to people or pets)- insect growth regulators (insect-specific hormones that disrupt growth and development)- biocontrol – living predators or insect pathogens to kill the roaches (natural spiders help, sokeep them around!)- last resort: conventional insecticides (best to use a professional applicator)4) After the problem is solved, you still need to continue monitoring to detect any reinfestation,and act quickly if found*Insecticide Resistance eventually develops, so pesticides are not a long term solutionBehavioral resistance: a heritable change in behavior that reducesexposure to insecticide (e.g. fire ants now avoid insecticides)Penetration resistance: a heritable change in the cuticle that reducesthe rate that insecticide penetrates into the insectMetabolic resistance: a heritable change in the rate at whichchemicals are metabolized and excretedTarget-site resistance: a heritable change in the specific site at whichan insecticide bindsRegardless of mechanism, resistance involves a genetic change*How do you think insecticide resistance develops?Myth: by undertreating with a chemical the bugs come back stronger (Individual tolerance ≠Heritable Resistance)Fact: by overtreating with a chemical (either at one time, or over long periods), intense selectivepressure is exerted on populations, and resistance may evolve (i.e. natural selection at work) (youfuture doctors, this is the way you will contribute to antibiotic resistance by over-prescribingthem!)*The main ways insecticide resistance developsOver or widespread treatments, rather than through correct, judicious treatment (follow the label)“Prophylactic” (just in case) treatments, rather than only when needed (don’t treat on a schedule,but only when needed)Using long persistence chemicals that stay in the environment, rather than ones that break downquicklyThe DDT story: first example of insecticide resistance- DDT was developed in the 1940s, and it effectively killed all kinds of insects and wasinexpensive.- Folks used it for all kinds of purposes, so insects, even non-target species, were exposed.- The material persisted for long periods of time in the environment, so exposure wasprolonged, long after intended goals were finished.- This intense selective pressure induced resistance is a wide assortment of insects.- It also caused toxicity problems with other animals (birds).Who most abuses pesticides?Farmers?Pest Control Operators?General Public?Professionals usually use minimal amount needed to save money, so they are not the biggestproblem.General public often doesn’t read labels, but even if they do, they don’t follow the directions.They often assume if a little bit is good, more is better, so over treat. Plus they think, what I do isnot all that consequential, right? But impacts add up. They are a big problem.What kinds of insecticides are being produced now?- Ones with long persistence- Ones used for numerous purposes- Prophylactic treatments are encouraged- All of these things will lead to resistance- Why do they do it? (answer: they create short-term profits)Lice NotesOrder Phthiraptera* Suborder Anoplura (sucking lice)- Wingless- Dorsoventrally flattened- Small (average around 2 mm)- Eyes reduced or absent- Antennae 3 to 5-segmented- Piercing-sucking mouthparts retracted into head- Legs with well-developed claws for grasping hair*- About 500 described species- Most (94%) species feed on mammals, 6% on birds- Most species are very host specific: 63% on a single host- species, only 13% on 4 or more different hosts- Only 3 species feed on humans, and they only feed on humans*Buccal teeth on tip of labrum anchor louse to skin (break off after feeding and causes irritation)Stylets (composed of the maxillae, hypopharynx, and labium)- are everted to penetrate blood capillariesTrue blood vessel feeders (solenophage)Robust tarsal claws allow firm attachment to host. Claw sizes match hair shaft size of host;human head hair or body hair, hair size of other animals*Human head and body lice (also called cooties):- Pediculus humanus capitus (head louse)- Pediculus humanus humanus (body louse)- Both infest


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