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SDS 4481 COMMUNICATION AND HUMAN RELATIONS Final Study Guide Below is a list of topics covered on the final Some of these are phrased as questions most of these will not be asked directly on the final but rather as a guide to what you must be able to understand in order to answer the final questions Chapter 6 Characteristics of nonverbal communication Unconscious pervasive when one person observes another inevitable culture bound relationship oriented feelings and attitudes functions supports enhances contradicts ambiguous different continuous multiple channels not discrete Gestures facial expressions eye behavior voice tone pitch volume touch body orientation posture clothing use of space and distance physical appearance 63 95 Difference between verbal and nonverbal messages Verbal are ideas and words nonverbal are attitudes and feelings and no words Understand the consistency between verbal and nonverbal communication Understand how nonverbal messages can be interpreted Recognize verbal messages can be complimented by nonverbal Impossible to communicate verbally w o giving nonverbal cues Hard to make accurate judgments due to incongruence We believe the nonverbal more because its usually harder to fake Contradictory communications are called double binds and lead to anxiety and suspicion Redundance and reinforcing verbal are most effective Chapter 7 Understand the differences between the 5 different ways of responding and be able to identify these from examples 1 Advising and Evaluating most common communicates evaluation correction suggestions or moral values Implies what sender should do in listeners opinion Builds barriers because people get defensive Can encourage other to not take responsibility for their actions Tells about advice givers values and perspective Not good for new relationships Ex if I were you why don t you you should 2 Analyzing and Interpreting points out some deep hidden reason that makes the sender act the way they do Makes sender defensive and decreases future disclosure teach Ex the reason you are upset is 3 Reassuring and Supporting receiver wants to be sympathetic and convey this May feel uncomfortable by expression of feelings and offer support to reduce intensity of feelings but often denies senders feelings Communicates lack of interest or rejection for how you feel Ex its not as bad as you think things will get better don t be sad 4 Question and Probing want more info guide discussion bring person to realization Indicate you are interested by asking questions and encouraging discussion Reflective statements 5 Paraphrasing and Understanding reflective statements that summarize without interrupting flow understand what sender is thinking and feeling Clarification and reassurance of your effort to understand Content depth meaning language Ex so what youre saying is it sounds like youre feeling How is someone likely to respond when you ask them why they did something implies that there is a rational explanation can make the other person become defensive and feel the need to justify rather than explore Why are open questions generally better than closed questions Rogers study Evaluative supporting probing and understanding 80 of communication Evaluative giving advice is most important Elements of listening Hearing attending understanding responding remembering Two things that determine the effectiveness of your listening and responding skills Intentions and attitudes underlying feelings and the phrasing of your response Chapter 8 What two things determine how you behave during a conflict In other words you have to consider the importance of what two things Dependent upon each other impossible to be free from conflict Achieving your goals maintaining a good relationship Know the five main conflict management strategies and be able to identify them in examples study the charts in the PowerPoint PICS 1 Withdrawing Turtle would rather hide and ignore conflict No winners no losers 2 Smoothing teddy bear conflict should be avoided in favor of harmony appease others to protect relationship 3 Forcing shark want to be the winner I win you lose competition 4 Compromising fox give up part of their goals persuade the other person to give up part of theirs You bend I bend 5 Problem Solving owl seek to achieve a win win collaborative resolution to conflict I win you win creative solution What characterizes a positive outcome in conflict resolution Clarify who you are and what your values are Help you understand who the other person is and what his her values are Focus attention on problems that have to be solved Clarify how you need to change Clarify what you care about and are committed to Keep the relationships clear of irritations and resentments and strengthen relationships by increasing your confidence in resolving disagreements Keeps depression away Maximize joint benefit to prevent from arising again Strengthen relationship between parties Improve the ability of disputants to resolve future conflicts constructively Contribute to the welfare of the broader community Know the effective negotiation strategies and when each are appropriate Goal of Little importance withdraw or smooth Goal high importance force compromise problem solve Relationship important compromise problem solve sense of humor Negotiate to win when the goal is important to you and your relationship has no future forcing In win lose negotiations the goal is to make an agreement more favorable to you than to the other person Negotiate to problem solve goal important and relationship important Describe What You Want Describe Your Feelings Exchanging Reasons for Positions Understanding the other s Perspective Inventing Options for Mutual Gain Reaching a Constructive Agreement Conflict of interest Want desire for something Need for survival Goal desired state of future affairs Conflict of interests When the actions taken by person A to achieve goals prevent Interests potential benefits to be gained if reach goal block or interfere with the actions taken by person B to achieve goals Memory and cognitive functioning exhaustion physical pain lack of concentration memory Chapter 9 What is the connection between stress and well being problems anger sleep problems Too much is bad and too little is bad homeostasis is good How can stress affect communication Pounding in the chest cold sweat butterflies or knots How can anger affect communication Tight muscles red or pale dry mouth dilated pupils flaring

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FSU SDS 4481 - Final Study Guide

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