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SDS 4481 COMMUNICATION AND HUMAN RELATIONSFinal Study Guide.Below is a list of topics covered on the final. Some of these are phrased as questions; most of these will not be asked directly on the final, but rather as a guide to what you must be able to understand in order to answer the final questions. Chapter 6- Characteristics of nonverbal communication- Unconscious, pervasive (when one person observes another), inevitable, culture bound, relationship oriented, feelings and attitudes, functions (supports, enhances, contradicts), ambiguous, different (continuous, multiple channels, not discrete)- Gestures, facial expressions, eye behavior, voice (tone, pitch, volume), touch, body orientation,posture, clothing, use of space and distance, physical appearance.- 63 – 95%- Difference between verbal and nonverbal messages- Verbal are ideas and words, nonverbal are attitudes and feelings and no words- Understand the consistency between verbal and nonverbal communication/ Understand how nonverbal messages can be interpreted/ Recognize verbal messages can be complimented by nonverbal- Impossible to communicate verbally w/o giving nonverbal cues. Hard to make accurate judgments due to incongruence. We believe the nonverbal more because its usually harder to fake. Contradictory communications are called double binds and lead to anxiety and suspicion.Redundance and reinforcing verbal are most effective. Chapter 7- Understand the differences between the 5 different ways of responding (and be able to identify these from examples):1. Advising and Evaluating- most common, communicates evaluation, correction, suggestions or moral values. Implies what sender should do in listeners opinion. Builds barriers because people get defensive. Can encourage other to not take responsibility for their actions. Tells about advice givers values and perspective. Not good for new relationships. Ex: if I were you, why don’t you, you should…2. Analyzing and Interpreting - points out some deep hidden reason that makes the sender act the way they do. Makes sender defensive and decreases future disclosure, teach. Ex: the reason you are upset is…3. Reassuring and Supporting- receiver wants to be sympathetic and convey this. May feel uncomfortable by expression of feelings and offer support to reduce intensity of feelings but often deniessenders feelings. Communicates lack of interest or rejection for how you feel. Ex: its notas bad as you think, things will get better, don’t be sad…4. Question and Probing- want more info, guide discussion, bring person to realization. Indicate you are interested by asking questions and encouraging discussion. Reflective statements5. Paraphrasing and Understanding- reflective statements that summarize without interrupting flow, understand what senderis thinking and feeling. Clarification and reassurance of your effort to understand. Content, depth, meaning, language. Ex: so what youre saying is, it sounds like youre feeling…- How is someone likely to respond when you ask them “why” they did something?- implies that there is a rational explanation, can make the other person become defensive and feel the need to justify rather than explore- Why are open questions generally better than closed questions?- Rogers study- Evaluative, supporting, probing and understanding = 80% of communication- Evaluative (giving advice) is most important- Elements of listening- Hearing, attending, understanding, responding, remembering- Two things that determine the effectiveness of your listening and responding skills- Intentions and attitudes (underlying feelings), and the phrasing of your responseChapter 8- What two things determine how you behave during a conflict? In other words, you have to consider the importance of what two things?- Dependent upon each other, impossible to be free from conflict.- Achieving your goals, maintaining a good relationship- Know the five main conflict management strategies and be able to identify them in examples (study the charts in the PowerPoint): PICS1. Withdrawing: Turtle: would rather hide and ignore conflict, No winners, no losers2. Smoothing: teddy bear- conflict should be avoided in favor of harmony, appease others to protect relationship3. Forcing: shark- want to be the winner, I win, you lose competition4. Compromising: fox - give up part of their goals & persuade the other person to give up part of theirs, You bend, I bend5. Problem-Solving: owl - seek to achieve a win-win collaborative resolution to conflict. I win, you win , creative solution- What characterizes a positive outcome in conflict resolution?- Clarify who you are and what your values are- Help you understand who the other person is and what his/her values are- Focus attention on problems that have to be solved- Clarify how you need to change- Clarify what you care about and are committed to- Keep the relationships clear of irritations and resentments, and strengthen relationships by -increasing your confidence in resolving disagreements- Keeps depression away Maximize joint benefit- to prevent from arising again  Strengthen relationship between parties Improve the ability of disputants to resolve future conflicts constructively Contribute to the welfare of the broader community- Know the effective negotiation strategies and when each are appropriate.- Goal of Little importance: withdraw or smooth- Goal high importance: force, compromise, problem solve- Relationship important: compromise, problem solve, sense of humor- Negotiate to win: when the goal is important to you and your relationship has no future (forcing), In win-lose negotiations, the goal is to make an agreement more favorable to you than to the other person.- Negotiate to problem solve:- goal important and relationship important.- Describe What You Want- Describe Your Feelings- Exchanging Reasons for Positions- Understanding the other’s Perspective- Inventing Options for Mutual Gain- Reaching a Constructive Agreement- Conflict of interest- Want: desire for something- Need: for survival- Goal: desired state of future affairs- Interests: potential benefits to be gained if reach goal- Conflict of interests: When the actions taken by person A to achieve goals prevent, block, or interfere with the actions taken by person B to achieve goals.Chapter 9- What is the connection between stress and well-being?- Memory and cognitive functioning, exhaustion, physical pain, lack of concentration, memory problems,

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FSU SDS 4481 - Final Study Guide

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