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Sociology of Deviant Behavior Study Guide Exam 2Chapters 6-10Chapter 6: Nonviolent CrimesIntroduction - The Internet is being used to commit nonviolent crimes such as identity theft and credit card theft.- Early efforts by President Bill Clinton and Attorney General Janet Reno brought federal attention to the seriousness of cybercrimes- Criminals differ on:- How they identify with crime and other criminals.- The strength of their commitment to crime as behavior.- The extent to which they progress in acquiring ever more sophisticated criminal norms and techniques.Occasional Property Offenders- Occasional offenders do not see themselves as criminals, and tryto rationalize their offenses to convince themselves that they have not committed criminal acts.What Are Occasional Property Offenders?- Occasional property offenses:- Illegal joyriding, check forgery, shoplifting, employee theft, or vandalism.- This criminal behavior is typically infrequent and occurs when situations are favorable.Definitions of Occasional Offenders- Auto Theft: - The taking of another individual's vehicle with the intent to keep it or its parts.- For example: A youth may decide to steal a car for the purpose of joyriding while an adult my decide to steal a car to sell its parts as a means to make money.Definitions of Occasional Offenders- Check Forgeries:- 75% are committed by offenders with no previous pattern in such behavior.- Offenders generally do not come from areas of high delinquency,have clean criminal records, no contact with delinquents and criminalsDefinitions of Occasional Offenders- Shoplifting and Employee Theft: - Closely related crimes, sometimes combined into a broader category labeled inventory shrinkage.- Denotes a business’s loss of merchandise from illegal activities as well as honest, unintentional mistakes such as bookkeeping errors.Definitions of Occasional Offenders- Shoplifting and Employee Theft: - Employee Theft:- When an employee uses his or her store discount for a family member or friend to use on their purchase.- Shoplifters come from all groups in society, but generally fall intotwo categories:- Youths- Respectable, employed members of the middle class, including housewives.- Respectable individuals include middle class members (Cameron,1964; Klemke 1992). - These individuals can afford to purchase things they steal.- Vandalism: - Often a crime of juvenile offenders who generally target similar property such as schools and their contents.- Public properties such as park equipment, road signs, fountains, cars, vacant houses and other buildings, and public necessities such as toilets and telephones.Society’s Reaction to Occasional Offenders- Occasional offenders seldom experience severe reaction to their crimes unless their crime causes serious damage or results in large thefts.- Punishment for vandals may include cleaning or repairing the damage they committed. These juveniles may also be candidates for diversion programs or probation.Conventional Criminal Careers- Conventional criminals are often described as serious criminals who have progressed from violence and theft as juveniles into more serious adult criminal behavior.- Youth gangs >>>more sophisticated criminal techniques.Conventional Criminal Careers- Conventional criminals experience frequent interactions with police, courts, juvenile authorities, youth detention centers, probation, and prison.- Most conventional offenders steal small amounts and do not leadcomfortable lifestyles.Self-Conception of Conventional Offenders- Conventional offenders develop self-conceptions through their interaction with others of similar criminal backgrounds.- Offenders who are employed find it easier to maintain non-criminal self-conceptsSociety’s Reaction to Conventional Offenders- Society’s response to conventional criminality has resulted in an increase in penalties and alternative forms of punishment such as Boot Camps.Society’s Reaction to Conventional Offenders- Problems with increasing penalties:- Overpopulated prison population- Mandatory prison sentences, determinate sentencing requirements, and increased severity of penalties for popular crime trends (i.e., methamphetamine use and manufacturing).- Florida's 10-20-Life law has led to the imprisonmentGun RulesFelon possessing a gun  3 yearsPulling a gun to commit a crime  10 yearsPuling the trigger during a crime  20 yearsInjuring or killing a victim by firing a gun during a crime 25 years to lifePolitical Criminal Offenders- Political crimes are:- (1) Crimes against the government- (2) Crimes by the government- Crimes against the government include crimes against the state such as protests, expressions of beliefs contrary to acceptedstandards, or attempts to alter current social and political structures.Political Criminal Offenders- Crimes against governments include treason, sabotage, assassination, hijacking, violation of draft laws, and illegal civil rights protests.- Political offenders perceive themselves as revolutionaries who pursue ideological goals rather than personal ones.- Crimes by governments include corruption, obstruction of justice,conspiracy, perjury, and bribery.- Political crimes by local and state governments:- Police officers commit acts of misconduct such as brutality, illegal use of force, illegal searches an seizures, and violating citizens’ civil rights.Organized Crime and Criminals-Organized criminal syndicates- Earn their living from criminal activities such as controlling prostitution, selling pornography, making loans with usurious terms (loan sharking), running illegal gambling, selling illegal narcotics, racketeering, and reselling stolen goods.-Organized Crime is defined as- A series of illegal transactions between multiple offenders, some of whom employ specialized skills, over a continuous period of time, for purposes of economic advantage, and political power when necessary to gain economic advantage (Rhodes, 1984:4)-Organized criminals- Most syndicate members are from inner cities, and committed a number of juvenile crimes.- Criminal history reflects-Gambling- Includes bookmakers who take bets on sporting events.- Numbers games.-Racketeering- Programs of systematic extortion that demand money from individuals and organizations in forced purchases of services, loans, or simply permission to continue controlling their own activities (Block and Chambliss, 1981).- Illegal drugs - Importing

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UCF SYP 3510 - Study Guide Exam 2

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