Unformatted text preview:

Physiology Exam 3 What techniques are used to understand brain and muscle activity during sleep Electroencephalogram EEG Electromyogram EMG an electrical potential recorded from an electrode places on or in a muscle chin Electro oculogram EOG an electrical potential from the eyes recorded by means of electrodes placed on the skin around them detects eye movements Also measure heart rate respiration etc Know the order in which we move thru the stages of sleep and generally that brain activity slows and becomes more synchronized from low amplitude high frequency activity to high amplitude low frequency as we get into deep sleep and how REM sleep is different Know when we would see alpha activity vs beta activity vs delta activity and what sleep spindles and k complexes are associated with Awake Stage 1 Sleep Stage 2 Sleep Alpha activity smooth electrical activity of 8 12 Hz recorded from the brain generally associated with a state of relaxation Beta activity irregular electrical activity of 13 30 Hz recorded from brain and associated with a state of arousal Desynchronization many circuits of the brain are actively processing information Theta activity EEG activity of 3 5 7 5 Hz that occurs intermittently during early stages of slow wave sleep and REM sleep transition between sleep and wakefulness Sleep spindles play a role in consolidation of memory 2 5 times per minute K complexes only in stage 2 1 per minute triggered by noises to protect person from waking up Stage 3 Sleep Slow Wave Sleep Delta activity regular synchronous electrical activity of less than 4 Hz recorded from the brain occurs during the deepest stages of slow wave sleep Hard to rouse would be groggy no dreaming More delta activity in stage 3 than 4 but no other obvious distinctions between the two Stage 4 Sleep REM sleep Desynchronized EEG activity rapid eye movement muscle paralysis dreaming easy to arouse would appear alert Compare and contrast REM sleep and non REM sleep in terms of functions of each we spent a bit of time on this EEG activity muscle tone and ability to rouse Functions of non REM sleep rest the brain cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolism decline free radicals are removed from cells Regular synchronous electrical activity of less than 4 Hz Hard to rouse Functions of REM sleep brain development learning muscle paralysis dreaming Desynchronized EEG activity rapid eye movements Would be easy to rouse What brain regions are active and inactive during REM sleep think of this in terms of dreaming BTW can dreams occur in non REM sleep What is more common cognitively than dreaming in non REM sleep Low activity in prefrontal cortex during REM sleep low activity in V1 no visual input High activity in visual association cortex dreams Rapid eye movements may reflect scanning the visual imagery of a dream Other brain regions that may be active cortical and subcortical movement if dream involves movement speaking and listening areas some parts of hypothalamus amygdala emotional content of dream Dreaming can occur in non REM sleep What is evidence that REM and non REM sleep might be involved in consolidating different types of memories REM sleep facilitates consolidation of implicit memory The experiment was as follows Learn a nondeclarative task in morning then tested in evening with No nap test performance worse than at end of training No REM nap test performance same as at end of training REM nap test performance improved over end of training What are symptoms of sleep deprivation Confusion weight loss inability to regulate body temperature and can be fatal What is the role of adenosine in sleep Adenosine is sleep promoting The less adenosine the less time in SWS What neurotransmitters are wakefulness promoting Neurotransmitters that play a role in wakefulness and or alertness are Norepinephrine for behavioral arousal and vigilance higher when awake than asleep Serotonin for overall level of consciousness higher when awake than asleep Acetylcholine Histamine Orexin Hypocretin more active when awake than asleep narcolepsy involves problems with this system provides stability to wakeful sleeping flip flop We discussed 3 general factors controlling sleep homeostatic allostatic and circadian Understand these and what chemical signals are important for each Homeostatic go without sleep sleep longer to make up sleep debt adenosine very important Allostatic reactions to stressful factors in the environment that override homeostatic control Stress hormones very important as well as neuropeptides involved in hunger and thirst Might stay awake when tired if being threatened for example Circadian restrict sleep to certain portions of the day Suprachiasmatic nucleus SCN and melatonin from pineal gland very important Understand the sleep wake flip flop and the role of orexin in this system In what major brain region in the sleep promoting region Sleep wake flip flop is when either the sleep neurons are active and inhibit the wakefulness neurons or the wakefulness neurons are active and inhibit the sleep neurons Because the regions are mutually inhibitory it is impossible for neurons in both sets of regions to be active at the same time This is advantageous since clearly it is better to either be awake or asleep How does adenosine affect the sleep wake flip flop How do other things like circadian signals and hunger or satiety signals affect it Adenosine is produced when neurons are metabolically active and the accumulation of adenosine produces downiness and sleep Levels of adenosine increased during wakefulness and slowly decreased during sleep especially in the basal forebrain What brainstem regions are important in REM sleep and what do they do Thalamic neurons fire in tonic normal mode Reticular neurons near LC inhibit motor neurons loss of muscle tone Pontis oralis neurons project to extraoccular muscles for REMs Generally speaking what is insomnia What are some causes of insomnia Insomnia is trouble going to sleep or staying asleep Causes include psychiatric disorders depression chronic medical disorders sleep apnea pain elderly drug dependency insomnia What is sleep apnea Sleep apnea is the cessation of breathing while sleeping CO2 stimulates chemoreceptors which causes person to wake up gasping for air O2 returns to normal and the cycle repeats Causes airway obstructed during sleep obesity brain mechanisms for breathing cease to function properly elderly What is narcolepsy Understand the various

View Full Document

FSU PSB 3004C - Physiology Exam 3

Download Physiology Exam 3
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...

Join to view Physiology Exam 3 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Physiology Exam 3 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.


By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?