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FSU CGS 2518 - Chapter 1: Using Technology to Change the World

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CGS2100 Exam 1 Page | 1 Survival Guide CGS2100 Exam 1 Chapters 1-5 Chapter 1: Using Technology to Change the World 1) Technology on the World Stage a) Social Networking: the gathering of groups of people using online tools to connect and exchange ideas b) Human Rights i) www.ted.org ii) The Witness Project (1) Use media to share abuses of human rights c) The Digital Divide: the term for the gap in levels of internet access and the availability of technical tools in different regions of the world 2) Technology and Our Society a) Factors that lead to Better Personal and Performance Satisfaction i) Autonomy: the freedom to work without constant direction and control ii) Mastery: the feeling of confidence and excitement from seeing your own skills progress iii) Purpose: simply the understanding that you are working for something larger than yourself b) Creative Surplus: the ability of the world’s populace to volunteer and collaborate on large projects c) How We Think About Each Other i) Women outnumber men in use of social media ii) Marketing to the norm (ex: men between 25 and 34) d) How We Connect i) Marketing (1) QR (Quick Response) Codes: lets any piece of print in the real world host a live link to online information and video content (2) Crowdsourcing: checking in with the voice of the crowd ii) Access Versus Ownership (1) Swap.com: uses peer-to-peer connections to find the best matches to sell used DVDs, games, etc. (2) Collaborative Consumption: joining together to use a product more efficiently e) Technology and Your Life i) Computer Literate: being familiar enough with computers that you understand their capabilities and limitations and you know how to use them efficiently ii) Being a Savvy Computer User (1) Avoids hackers and viruses (2) Protects privacy (3) Understands the real risksCGS2100 Exam 1 Page | 2 (4) Uses the internet and web wisely (5) Avoids online annoyances (6) Is able to maintain, upgrade and troubleshoot a computer iii) Preparing for Your Career (1) Information Technology (IT): a field of study focused on managing and processing information and the automatic retrieval of information (2) Data Mining: the process of searching through huge amounts of data with the hopes of finding a pattern (3) Augmented Reality: a combination of our normal sense of the objects around us with an overlay of information displayed iv) Psychology: You Should Smile… Now (1) Affective Computing: computing that relates to emotion or deliberately tries to influence emotion 1) Technology in Focus: History of the P.C. a) Altair 8000, the first personal computer ($395.00 or $498.00 which is about $2,000.00 today) b) No keyboard, monitor or printer c) Data inputs on the front put in 1s or 0s and then gave the results of the programs 2) The Apple 1 and 2 a) Steve Wozniac, an employee of HP, became fascinated with the personal computer industry b) Steve Jobs, working for Atari at the time, likes Wozniac’s prototypes and together formed the Apple 1 c) Apple Computer Company: formed April 1st 1976 d) Apple 2: came in 1977 and was an improvement to the Apple 1 i) Had color monitor, sound and cost around $1,300 at the time ii) 4 kb RAM iii) Optional floppy disk drive iv) Most successful product in the company’s early line e) Apple 3: 1980 release i) included spreadsheet programs, games, word processor 3) The Commodore PET and TRS-80 a) Commodore PET 2001 b) TRS-80 i) “a $595 home computer” (1) Immediately popular: sold 10,000 in first month ii) 4 kb memory 4) The Osborne a) The first portable computer, released in April 1981 b) Weighed 24.5 pounds c) $1,795 d) 64 kb memory e) Following the release of The Executive, a successor to The Osborne, the Osborne company closed and Compaq bought the designs 5) IBM PCs a) IBM PCCGS2100 Exam 1 Page | 3 i) IBM’s first personal computer ii) Marketed through Sears and Computer land iii) $1565 iv) 64 kb memory 6) Other Important Advancements a) Hardware b) Advances in programming languages c) The importance of BASIC i) Programming languages: FORTRAN, ALGOL, COBOL ii) Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) (1) Revolutionized software (2) Easy to learn (3) Bill Gates and Paul Allen used it to write for the Altair and led to the creation of Microsoft d) The Advent of Operating Systems i) Disk 2: floppy disk designed by Steve Wozniac and was 5.25 inches, introduced in 1978 ii) Disk Operating System (DOS): 1977, designed by Steve Wozniac, was the OS that controlled the first Apple Computers iii) The Control Program for Microcomputers (CP/N): developed by Gad Kildall, first OS designed for Intel 8080 chip, then founded his own company called Digital Research iv) MS-DOS: based on Quick and Dirty Operating System (QDOS) developed by Seattle Computer Products e) The Software Application Explosion: VisiCalc and Beyond i) VisiCalc: created by Harvard Business School students Dan Bricklin and Bob Frankston, a spreadsheet program to be used on PCs ii) Other spreadsheet programs: Lotus 1-2-3 (1983) and Microsoft Excel (1985) iii) WordStar: the first word processing application iv) Word for MS-DOS: the precursor to Microsoft Word v) Graphical User Interface (GUI): allows users to interact with the computer more easily f) The Lisa and The Macintosh i) Lisa: the first successful PC that used a GUI, priced too high (at $9,995) ii) Macintosh: everything the Lisa had, and more and cost a third of the price g) The Internet Boom i) Mosaic: a web browser introduced in 1993 that caused web traffic to increase by 350% ii) Windows 95: produced by Microsoft, included a web browser (Internet Explorer) and also Microsoft Office applications h) Making the PC: Early Computers i) The Pascalene Calculator and the Jaquard Loom (1) The Pascalene: the first accurate mechanical calculator, created by French mathematician Blaise Pascal in 1642 (2) Jaquard Look: a loom capable of weaving complex patternsCGS2100 Exam 1 Page | 4 ii) Babbage’s Engines: Charles Babbage created the first automatic calculator called the Analytic Engine, based on the Difference Engine iii) Hallerith Tabulating Machine a machine for the Census Bureau that tabulated census data iv) Z1: a mechanical calculator invented by Konrad Zuse v) Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC): used vacuum tubes to store data rather than mechanical switches vi) The Harvard Mark 1: finished in 1944 could perform all


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