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Nutrition and Sports EXAM III REVIEW 1. Describe the average fluid distribution, functions of water, relative tissue content and daily water balance both under normal and exercise conditions. a. Fluid distribution: i. 40L = 60% of total body weight 1. 40% is Intracellular Fluid 2. 20% is Extracellular Fluid a. 5% is Plasma b. 15% is interstitial fluid b. Functions: i. Thermal – high heat capacity, and evaporation for cooling ii. Participates in chemical reactions iii. Lubricant iv. Transport Medium v. Solvent – for ionization of electrolytes and acids c. Tissue Content i. Skin = 72% water ii. Organs = 76 % water iii. Skeleton = 22% water iv. Blood = 83% water v. Adipose = 10% water vi. Muscle = 76% water d. Water Balance: i. Normal Exercise ii. INTAKE, ml/d 2,500 5,000 iii. Fluid ingestion 1,200 3,400 iv. Food water 1,000 1,150 v. Water of oxidation 300 450 vi. OUTPUT, ml/d 2,500 5,000 vii. Urine 1,400 500 viii. Expired air 400 600 ix. Feces 200 200 x. Skin 500 3,7002. Know the body content, functions, daily intake and concentrations of electrolytes discussed in class. a. Sodium (Na) i. Body Content = 65g ii. Functions = 1. Control of extracellular fluid volume 2. Regulation of osmolality, acid-base balance 3. Cell membrane resting potential 4. Active transport across cell membranes iii. Daily Intake 1. Adequate Intake = 1500mg/d 2. Upper Intake = 2300mg/d 3. Average daily intake = 1.5-1.8g/d b. Potassium (K) i. Body Content = 180g ii. Functions: 1. Control of Intracellular Fluid Volume 2. Regulation of osmolality, acid-base balance 3. Cell membrane potential iii. Daily Intake 1. Men = 2945mg/d 2. Women = 1976mg/d 3. Adequate intake = 4700mg/d c. Concentration in body i. Electrolyte Sweat Plasma Cells ii. Na+ (mEq/l) 40-60 140 9 iii. Cl- (mEq/l) 30-50 101 6 iv. K+ (mEq/l) 3-4 4 162 v. Osmolality (mOsm/l) 80-150 290 290 3. Understand the equation to determine Net Filtration Pressure and be able to use this equation to solve a problem. a. Net Filtration Pressure = (Blood Hydrostatic Pressure + Interstitial Fluid Osmotic Pressure) – (Blood Colloid Osmotic Pressure + Interstitial Fluid Hydrostatic Fluid) i. Net Filtration Pressure = positive, then Fluid is filtered out ii. New filtration Pressure = negative, then Fluid is reabsorbed 4. Identify which factors regulate fluid balance. Describe how each factor influences fluid balance. Which is primary response, long term, etc. a. Thirst Mechanism – decreases saliva production and blood volume and increases blood pressure. Tells hypothalamus to increase fluid intake and relieve dehydration b. Vasopressin (ADH) – Increase in plasma osmolality causes ADH to be released and cause an increase in fluid reabsorption c. Renin-Angiotensin – decline in systematic blood pressure and volume cause the release of angiotensin hormones to increase the reabsorption of sodium and water to increase blood volume and pressure5. Describe physiologically how dehydration affects fluid balance in the different compartments, osmolality, sweating and performance at varying levels of hypohydration. Are there any differences between men and women? a. Dehydration in compartments = Majority of water loss is in intracellular and interstitial fluid with a minority of the water loss in plasma b. Osmolality – generally increasing osmolality with increasing dehydration, but not significant c. Plasma volume – generally decreasing with increasing dehydration d. Performance –generally decreasing with increasing dehydration and hotter weather e. Sweating – rate of sweating decreases with increasing dehydration and causes a higher core body temperature f. Women – sweat less than men, but maintain similar core body temperatures 6. What are the ACSM guidelines for exercise and fluid replacement? a. Prehydration: slowly drink fluids beginning several hours before exercise. b. During exercise: develop customized fluid replacement plans that prevent >2% dehydration. c. Preferred fluid temperature is between 15 and 21°C. d. Consuming fluids containing Na (20-30 meq/L), K (2-5 meq/L), and 6-8% CHO can help sustain fluid-electrolyte balance and exercise performance. e. Post-exercise: consuming beverages and meals will expedite rapid and complete recovery by stimulating thirst and fluid retention. 7. Know the characteristics of the various heat/exercise related illnesses discussed in class. a. Heat Exhaustion – Body is unable to continue exercise in heat, blood pressure is low, pulse is rapid and sweating is profuse b. Hyponatremia – low sodium and inability to retain water (vomit, diarrhea, sweating, etc) c. Exertional Heat Stroke - body temperature is so high that it cause damage to body tissues 8. Identify the risk factors associated with hyponatremia. a. Low body weight b. Female sex c. 4 hours exercise duration or longer d. Slow running or performance pace e. Excessive drinking behavior f. Renal water excretion altered by drugs (NSAID) g. Extremely hot environmental conditions9. Understand which factors have a positive and negative effect on gastric emptying. a. Stomach Volume – increased gastric emptying with increased volume b. Exercise Intensity – slowed with High Intensity exercise, moderate or low intensity = no change c. Osmolarity – high osmolarity increases secretions that help in gastric emptying d. Energy Density – Fat inhibits gastric emptying, protein/carb drink slows gastric emptying e. Meal Temperature – optimal between 15-20degree Celsius f. Psychological Stress – reduction due to hormone concentration g. Dehydration: slowing h. Hyperthermia: slowing i. Women: slower j. pH: slower when pH < 6.0, Optimal 7.0 10. How does food influence post-exercise rehydration? a. Food has a lower urine output and higher net fluid balance than a carbohydrate drink. Food is better for post-exercise rehydration 11. Know what causes GI distress during exercise and how to minimize the risk. a. Physiological – reduced blood flow due to anxiety b. Mechanical - impact or bad posture can disturb GI c. Nutrition – proteins, fats, fibers, lactose intolerance, dehydration d. Prevention: i. Avoid milk products that contain lactose ii. Avoid high fiber foods iii. Avoid aspirin

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