Unformatted text preview:

Nutrition and Sports EXAM III REVIEW 1 Describe the average fluid distribution functions of water relative tissue content and daily water balance both under normal and exercise conditions a Fluid distribution i 40L 60 of total body weight 1 40 is Intracellular Fluid 2 20 is Extracellular Fluid a 5 is Plasma b 15 is interstitial fluid b Functions i Thermal high heat capacity and evaporation for cooling ii Participates in chemical reactions iii Lubricant iv Transport Medium v Solvent for ionization of electrolytes and acids c Tissue Content i Skin 72 water ii Organs 76 water iii Skeleton 22 water iv Blood 83 water v Adipose 10 water vi Muscle 76 water d Water Balance i ii INTAKE ml d iii Fluid ingestion iv Food water v Water of oxidation vi OUTPUT ml d vii Urine viii Expired air ix Feces x Skin Normal 2 500 1 200 1 000 300 2 500 1 400 400 200 500 Exercise 5 000 3 400 1 150 450 5 000 500 600 200 3 700 2 Know the body content functions daily intake and concentrations of electrolytes discussed in class a Sodium Na i Body Content 65g ii Functions 1 Control of extracellular fluid volume 2 Regulation of osmolality acid base balance 3 Cell membrane resting potential 4 Active transport across cell membranes iii Daily Intake 1 Adequate Intake 1500mg d 2 Upper Intake 2300mg d 3 Average daily intake 1 5 1 8g d b Potassium K i Body Content 180g ii Functions 1 Control of Intracellular Fluid Volume 2 Regulation of osmolality acid base balance 3 Cell membrane potential iii Daily Intake 1 Men 2945mg d 2 Women 1976mg d 3 Adequate intake 4700mg d c Concentration in body i Electrolyte Sweat ii Na mEq l 40 60 iii Cl mEq l 30 50 iv K mEq l 3 4 v Osmolality mOsm l 80 150 Plasma 140 101 4 290 Cells 9 6 162 290 3 Understand the equation to determine Net Filtration Pressure and be able to use this equation to solve a problem a Net Filtration Pressure Blood Hydrostatic Pressure Interstitial Fluid Osmotic Pressure Blood Colloid Osmotic Pressure Interstitial Fluid Hydrostatic Fluid i Net Filtration Pressure positive then Fluid is filtered out ii New filtration Pressure negative then Fluid is reabsorbed 4 Identify which factors regulate fluid balance Describe how each factor influences fluid balance Which is primary response long term etc a Thirst Mechanism decreases saliva production and blood volume and increases blood pressure Tells hypothalamus to increase fluid intake and relieve dehydration b Vasopressin ADH Increase in plasma osmolality causes ADH to be released and cause an increase in fluid reabsorption c Renin Angiotensin decline in systematic blood pressure and volume cause the release of angiotensin hormones to increase the reabsorption of sodium and water to increase blood volume and pressure 5 Describe physiologically how dehydration affects fluid balance in the different compartments osmolality sweating and performance at varying levels of hypohydration Are there any differences between men and women a Dehydration in compartments Majority of water loss is in intracellular and interstitial fluid with a minority of the water loss in plasma b Osmolality generally increasing osmolality with increasing dehydration but not significant c Plasma volume generally decreasing with increasing dehydration d Performance generally decreasing with increasing dehydration and hotter weather e Sweating rate of sweating decreases with increasing dehydration and causes a higher core body temperature f Women sweat less than men but maintain similar core body temperatures 6 What are the ACSM guidelines for exercise and fluid replacement a Prehydration slowly drink fluids beginning several hours before exercise b During exercise develop customized fluid replacement plans that prevent 2 dehydration c Preferred fluid temperature is between 15 and 21 C d Consuming fluids containing Na 20 30 meq L K 2 5 meq L and 6 8 CHO can help sustain fluid electrolyte balance and exercise performance e Post exercise consuming beverages and meals will expedite rapid and complete recovery by stimulating thirst and fluid retention 7 Know the characteristics of the various heat exercise related illnesses discussed in class a Heat Exhaustion Body is unable to continue exercise in heat blood pressure is low pulse is rapid and sweating is profuse b Hyponatremia low sodium and inability to retain water vomit diarrhea sweating c Exertional Heat Stroke body temperature is so high that it cause damage to body etc tissues 8 Identify the risk factors associated with hyponatremia a Low body weight b Female sex c 4 hours exercise duration or longer d Slow running or performance pace e Excessive drinking behavior f Renal water excretion altered by drugs NSAID g Extremely hot environmental conditions 9 Understand which factors have a positive and negative effect on gastric emptying a Stomach Volume increased gastric emptying with increased volume b Exercise Intensity slowed with High Intensity exercise moderate or low intensity c Osmolarity high osmolarity increases secretions that help in gastric emptying d Energy Density Fat inhibits gastric emptying protein carb drink slows gastric no change emptying e Meal Temperature optimal between 15 20degree Celsius f Psychological Stress reduction due to hormone concentration g Dehydration slowing h Hyperthermia slowing i Women slower j pH slower when pH 6 0 Optimal 7 0 10 How does food influence post exercise rehydration a Food has a lower urine output and higher net fluid balance than a carbohydrate drink Food is better for post exercise rehydration 11 Know what causes GI distress during exercise and how to minimize the risk a Physiological reduced blood flow due to anxiety b Mechanical impact or bad posture can disturb GI c Nutrition proteins fats fibers lactose intolerance dehydration d Prevention i Avoid milk products that contain lactose ii Avoid high fiber foods iii Avoid aspirin and nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs NSAIDs iv Avoid high fructose foods v Avoid dehydration vi Practice new nutrition strategies 12 Know the B vitamins their DRIs upper limits if they exist and their specific coenzymes a Thiamin B1 b Riboflavin B2 i DRI Men 1 2mg d Women 1 1mg d ii Coenzymes thiamin pyrophosphate TPP i DRI Men 1 3mg d Women1 1mg d ii Coenzyme Flavinadenine dinucleotide FAD c Pyridoxine B6 i DRI 1 3mg d ii Upper Limit 100mg d iii Coenzyme pyridoxoal 5 phosphate PLP d Niacin i DRI Men 16mg d Women 14mg d ii Upper Limit 35mg d iii Coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NAD NADP e Pantotheninc acid i DRI

View Full Document


Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...

Join to view EXAM III REVIEW and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view EXAM III REVIEW and access 3M+ class-specific study document.


By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?