Upgrade to remove ads

This preview shows page 1-2-3-4-5-6 out of 18 pages.

Save
View Full Document
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 18 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 18 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 18 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 18 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 18 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 18 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience

Upgrade to remove ads
Unformatted text preview:

Articulations:1. Explain how joints are classified.a. Functional Classification: i. Based on range of motion (ROM) of the jointii. Three Types:1. Synarthrosis2. Amphiarthrosis3. Diarthrosisb. Structural Classification: i. Relies on the anatomical organization of the joint2. Describe the three functional classifications of joints. What are the properties of these joints? What are some examples of these joints?a. Synarthrosis: i. Immovable Jointii. Extremely strong joints 1. Located where movement between the bones must be preventediii. Edges of bones may touch or interlockiv. Fibrous or cartilaginous or fused bonesv. Types:1. Suture: (fibrous)a. Bones interlockedb. Bound by dense fibrous connective tissuec. Found ONLY in skulld. Ex: i. Coronal, squamous, lambdoid, sagittal2. Gomphosis: (fibrous)a. Fibrous connectionb. Ex: Periodontal ligament connects teeth to jawi. Binds teeth to sockets3. Synchondrosis: (cartilaginous)a. Rigid cartilaginous bridge between two bonesb. Ex: i. Cartilage between vertebrosternal ribs and sternumii. Epiphyseal cartilage of long bones4. Synostosis: (bony fusion)a. Fused bones, immovableb. Ex:i. Metopic suture of skull-fuses two sides of frontal boneii. Epiphyseal lines of mature long bonesb. Amphiarthrosis: i. Slightly movable joint1. More movable than synarthrosis2. Stronger than freely movableii. Articulating bones are connected by collagen fibers or cartilageiii. Types:1. Syndesmosis (fibrous)a. Bones are connected by a ligamentb. Ex: Articulation between tibia and fibula2. Symphysis (Cartilaginous)a. Bones are separated by a pad of fibrocartilageb. Ex: Pubic symphysisc. Diarthrosis: i. Freely movable jointii. “Synovial Joints”iii. Permit a wide range of motioniv. Within articular capsulesv. Lined with synovial membranevi. Ex: 1. Ends of long bones (upper and lower limbs)3. Describe the four structural classifications of joints. What are the properties of these joints? What are some examples of these joints?a. Bony: i. Synotoses (synarthroses)b. Fibrous: i. Sutures and gomphoses (synarthroses)ii. Syndesmosomes (amphiarthroses)c. Cartilaginous: i. Synchondroses (synarthroses) and symphyses (amphiarthroses)d. Synovial: i. Only diarthroses4. Describe the structure of a synovial joint.a. Surrounded by a two-layered articular capsulei. Exists within these articular capsulesb. Lined with synovial membrane i. Doesn’t cover the articulating surface within the jointc. Joint Cavity containing synovial fluid5. Describe the structures found in a synovial joint. a. Articular Cartilage: i. Pad articulating surfaces within articular capsules1. Prevent bones from touchingb. Synovial Fluid: i. Contains slippery proteoglycans (glycoproteins) secreted by fibroblastsii. Consistency of heavy molassesiii. Reduces frictioniv. Functions: 1. Lubrication:a. Articular cartilages act like sponges filled with synovial fluid, compression of it pushes some synovial fluid outb. When compression stops, fluid is pulled back into the articular cartilages2. Nutrient Distribution:a. Fluid circulates as joint moves, provides nutrients to chondrocytes3. Shock Absorption:a. Cushions joints that are subjected to compression from shocksb. Shock is lessened as fluid spreads across articular surfaces and out to the articular capsulec. Accessory Structures: i. Cartilages, Fat Pads, Ligaments, Tendons, and Bursae6. What are the accessory structures found at the synovial joint? What are their functions?a. Cartilages: i. Cushions the joint1. Fibrocartilage pad called a meniscus, or articular disc2. Can subdivide the synovial cavity, channel the flow of fluid, or allow variations in shape of the articular surfacesb. Fat Pads: i. Adipose tissue superficial to the joint capsule1. Localized masses of adipose tissue covered by a layer of synovial membraneii. Protect articular cartilages1. When bones move, fill in spaces created as the joint cavity changes shapec. Ligaments: i. Support, strengthen and reinforce jointsii. No direct blood supply (heals slower than bone)iii. Sprain – stretched ligaments with torn collagen fibersd. Tendons: i. Attach to muscles around jointii. Help support jointiii. Limit the joint’s range of motion and provide mechanical support for ite. Bursae: i. Singular, bursa, a pouchii. Pockets of synovial fluidiii. Cushions areas where tendons or ligaments rub (formed here too)1. Reduce friction2. Act as shock absorbersiv. Bursitis-inflamed bursae causing pain, can result from repetitive motion, irritation, trauma, infection 7. Describe how the range of motion is reduced at a synovial joint. Why is this important? What happens if this does not occur?a. *The greater the range of motion at a joint, the weaker it becomes.b. Four Factors that Limit Range of Motion:i. Collagen fibers (joint capsule, ligaments)ii. Shape of the articulating surfaces and menisciiii. Presence of other bones, muscles, or fat padsiv. Tension in the tendons of articulating bonesc. Why is it important?i. Prevent injury1. Stabilize jointii. Pain receptors are NOT found on the inside of synovial joints. Pain felt due to joint damage results from nerves that monitor capsule, ligaments, and tendonsd. Injuries of Synovial Joints (what happens if ROM is not reduced):i. Dislocation (luxation): 1. Caused by extreme stress2. Articulating surfaces forced out of position3. Damages articular cartilage, ligaments, joint capsule4. Shoulder Joint = most prone to this injuryii. Subluxation: 1. A partial dislocation (less severe)iii. “Double Jointed” = weakly stabilized joints  prone to dislocation or Subluxation8. Describe the different types of joint movementsa. A joint cannot be both mobile AND strongi. The greater the mobility, the weaker the jointii. Mobile joints are supported by muscles and ligaments, not bone-to-bone connectionsb. Linear Movement (Gliding): i. Two surfaces slide past each otherii. Movement can occur in almost any direction, but is slight1. Rotation is prevented by the capsule and ligamentsiii. Nonaxial (small sliding movements) OR Multiaxial (any direction)iv. Example:1. Between carpal or tarsal bones and motion between the clavicle and sternumc. Angular Movement: i. Flexion:1. Angular motion in the anterior-posterior plane2. REDUCES angle between elements3. Ex: Flex head toward chest (intervertebral joints)ii. Extension:1. Angular motion in the anterior-posterior plane2. INCREASES angle between elements3. (In anatomical


View Full Document
Download Articulations
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Articulations and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Articulations 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?